You go a concert and you want to know how loud it is in decibels. The decibel level of a sound is found by first assigning an intensity I0 to a very soft sound, or the threshold. The decibel level can then be measured with the formula where *I* is the intensity of the sound. If the intensity of the concert is 1,000,000,000(I0), what is its decibel level?

### Logarithm

You can probably guess that in and in . But, what is if ? Until now, we did not have an inverse to an exponential function. But, because we have variables in the exponent, we need a way to get them out of the exponent. We will now introduce the logarithm. A **logarithm** is defined as the inverse of an exponential function. It is written such that . Therefore, if (**exponential form**), then (**logarithmic form**).

There are two special logarithms, or logs. One has base 10, and rather that writing , we just write log. The other is the **natural log**, the inverse of the natural number. The natural log has base and is written . This is the only log that is not written using .

Let's rewrite in exponential form.

Use the definition above, also called the “key”.

Now, let's find the following.

.

.

. There is no solution. A positive number when raised to any power will never be negative.

Using the key, we can rearrange all of these in terms of exponents.

There are two special logarithms that you may encounter while writing them into exponential form.

The first is , because . The second is because can be any number except 1.

Finally, let's use a calculator to find the following logarithms and round our answers to the nearest hundredth.

Locate the **LN** button on your calculator. Depending on the brand, you may have to input the number first. For a TI-83 or 84, press **LN**, followed by the 7 and **ENTER**. The answer is 1.95.

The **LOG** button on the calculator is base 10. Press **LOG**, 35, **ENTER**. The answer is 1.54.

To use the calculator for a base other than 10 or the natural log, you need to use the change of base formula.

**Change of Base Formula:** , such that and and and .

So, to use this for a calculator, you can use either LN or LOG.

or

In the TI-83 or 84, the keystrokes would be **LOG**(226)/**LOG**(5), **ENTER**.

### Examples

#### Example 1

Earlier, you were asked to find the decibel level of a concert if the intensity is 1,000,000,000(I0).

Plug the given values into the equation and solve for *d*.

Therefore, the decibel level of the concert is 90.

#### Example 2

Write in logarithmic form.

Using the key, we have: .

**For Examples 3-5, evaluate the expressions without a calculator.**

Change each logarithm into exponential form and solve for .

#### Example 3

. must be negative because the answer is not a fraction, like the base.

, so . Therefore, .

#### Example 4

. , therefore, .

#### Example 5

. First, , so . To make this a fraction, we need to make the power negative. , therefore .

#### Example 6

Use the change of base formula to evaluate in a calculator.

Rewriting using the change of base formula, we have: . Plugging it into a calculator, we get .

### Review

Convert the following exponential equations to logarithmic equations.

Convert the following logarithmic equations to exponential equations.

Convert the following logarithmic expressions without a calculator.

Evaluate the following logarithmic expressions using a calculator. You may need to use the Change of Base Formula for some problems.

### Answers for Review Problems

To see the Review answers, open this PDF file and look for section 8.5.