Remember Kara's study of the solar system in the Comparison of Numbers in Scientific Notation Concept?

Well, after gathering information, Kara decided to add some distances together. She decided to add the distances from Earth to Saturn with the distance from Earth to Jupiter.

Here is what she wrote.

Do you know the sum?

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This Concept will teach you how to add, subtract, multiply and divide values written in scientific notation.
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### Guidance

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Scientific notation makes reading and writing very large and very small numbers easier; it makes computation with such numbers easier as well.
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Let’s start with addition and subtraction.
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Before performing addition or subtraction on scientific notation, the exponents must be the same. Matching the exponents involves a simple case of moving the decimal point—a process you’ve completed many times in making the divisor a whole number before dividing decimals. Let’s see how it’s done in the following addition problem. Note how we use parentheses to group the scientific notation on either side of the addition sign.

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We want to make both of these exponents the same. To make both exponents 5’s, we move the decimal point in 5.7 one place to the left by multiplying by 10.
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Now we can add the decimal parts of the problem. The power of 10 stays the same.
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Our answer is
.
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Subtraction works the same way as addition: Before performing the subtraction operation, the exponents must be the same.
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Multiplication and division in scientific notation is a little different.
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Do you remember simplifying exponents?
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To multiply the exponents, we add the powers.
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Multiplying scientific notation is similar: You multiply the decimals and add the exponents.
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Division of scientific notation is identical to multiplication—except you
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divide
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**the decimals and**

*subtract***the exponents. Let’s try it out.**

Now it's time for you to try a few on your own.

#### Example A

Add

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Solution:
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#### Example B

Multiply

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Solution:
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#### Example C

Subtract

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Solution:
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Here is the original problem once again.

Well, after gathering information, Kara decided to add some distances together. She decided to add the distances from Earth to Saturn with the distance from Earth to Jupiter.

Here is what she wrote.

Do you know the sum?

First, notice that the exponent is the same in both values. Therefore, we can simply add the decimals.

Now we add the rest of the scientific notation.

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This is our answer.
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### Vocabulary

- Standard Form
- As opposed to scientific notation, standard form means writing numbers in the usual way with all of the zeros accounted for in the value.

- Exponential Form
- The exponential form of an expression is , where is the base and is the exponent.

- Scientific Notation
- Scientific notation is a means of representing a number as a product of a number between 1 and 10 and a power of 10.

### Guided Practice

Here is one for you to try on your own.

At its closest, the planet Neptune is 4,300,000,000 kilometers away from Earth. A group of astronauts from Earth want to make it to Neptune is 20,000 days. If they travel the same amount of kilometers each day, how many kilometers will they travel each day? Convert both numbers to scientific notation before solving.

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Answer
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Let’s begin by converting both numbers to scientific notation.

The distance between Earth and Neptune, in scientific notation, is . The number of days the astronauts want to travel in scientific notation is .

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We want to divide the distance evenly among the days, so we know we need to divide.
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Remember: To divide numbers in scientific notation, you divide the decimals and subtract the exponents.
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Remember to put the units of measurement in your answer!

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Our answer is
or 215,000 kilometers.
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### Video Review

This is a James Sousa video about writing decimal numbers given scientific notation.

This is a James Sousa video about multiplying values that are in scientific notation.

This is a James Sousa video about dividing numbers that are in scientific notation.

### Explore More

Directions: Add, subtract, multiply or divide

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