Suppose that two square plots of land both have a side length of
Guidance
So far we have discussed linear functions and exponential functions. This Concept introduces polynomial functions.
Definition: A polynomial is an expression made with constants, variables, and positive integer exponents of the variables.
An example of a polynomial is:
Example A
Identify the following expressions as polynomials or nonpolynomials.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
Solution:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
Classifying Polynomials by Degree
The degree of a polynomial is the largest exponent of a single term.

4x3 has a degree of 3 and is called a cubic term or3rd order term. 
2x2 has a degree of 2 and is called a quadratic term or2nd order term. 
−3x has a degree of 1 and is called a linear term or1st order term.  1 has a degree of 0 because there is no variable.
Polynomials can have more than one variable. Here is another example of a polynomial:
–5 is a constant, so its degree is 0.
Since the highest degree of a term in this polynomial is 5, this is a polynomial of degree 5 or a
Example B
Identify the coefficient on each term, the degree of each term, and the degree of the polynomial.
Solution: The coefficients of each term in order are 1, –3, and 8, and the constant is –12.
The degrees of each term are 4, 5, 1, and 0. Therefore, the degree of the polynomial is 5.
A monomial is a onetermed polynomial. It can be a constant, a variable, or a variable with a coefficient. Examples of monomials are the following:
Rewriting Polynomials in Standard Form
Often, we arrange the terms in a polynomial in standard from in which the term with the highest degree is first and is followed by the other terms in order of decreasing powers. The first term of a polynomial in this form is called the leading term, and the coefficient in this term is called the leading coefficient.
Example C
Rearrange the terms in the following polynomials so that they are in standard form. Indicate the leading term and leading coefficient of each polynomial.
(a)
(b)
Solution:
(a)
(b)
Simplifying Polynomials
A polynomial is simplified if it has no terms that are alike. Like terms are terms in the polynomial that have the same variable(s) with the same exponents, but they can have different coefficients.
If we have a polynomial that has like terms, we simplify by combining them.
This polynomial is simplified by combining the like terms:
Example D
Simplify by collecting and combining like terms.
Solution: Use the Commutative Property of Addition to reorganize like terms and then simplify.
\begin{align*}& = (a^3b^3a^3b^3) + (5ab^4+3ab^4) + 2a^3ba^2b\\
& = 02ab^4+2a^3ba^2b\\
& = 2ab^4+2a^3 ba^2 b\end{align*}
Guided Practice
Simplify and rewrite the following polynomial in standard form. State the degree of the polynomial.
\begin{align*}16x^2y^33xy^52x^3y^2+2xy7x^2y^3+2x^3y^2\end{align*}
Solution:
Start by simplifying by combining like terms:
\begin{align*}16x^2y^33xy^52x^3y^2+2xy7x^2y^3+2x^3y^2=(16x^2y^37x^2y^3)3xy^5+(2x^3y^2+2x^3y^2)+2xy=9x^2y^33xy^5+2xy\end{align*}
In order to rewrite in standard form, we need to determine the degree of each term. The first term has a degree of \begin{align*}2+3=5\end{align*}, the second term has a degree of \begin{align*}1+5=6\end{align*}, and the last term has a degree of \begin{align*}1+1=2\end{align*}. We will rewrite the terms in order from largest degree to smallest degree:
\begin{align*}3xy^5+9x^2y^3+2xy\end{align*}
The degree of a polynomial is the largest degree of all the terms. In this case that is 6.
Practice
Sample explanations for some of the practice exercises below are available by viewing the following video. Note that there is not always a match between the number of the practice exercise in the video and the number of the practice exercise listed in the following exercise set. However, the practice exercise is the same in both. CK12 Basic Algebra: Addition and Subtraction of Polynomials (15:59)
Define the following key terms.
 Polynomial
 Monomial
 Degree
 Leading coefficient
For each of the following expressions, decide whether it is a polynomial. Explain your answer.
 \begin{align*}x^2+3x^{\frac{1}{2}}\end{align*}
 \begin{align*}\frac{1}{3}x^2y9y^2\end{align*}
 \begin{align*}3x^{3}\end{align*}
 \begin{align*}\frac{2}{3}t^2\frac{1}{t^2}\end{align*}
Express each polynomial in standard form. Give the degree of each polynomial.
 \begin{align*}32x\end{align*}
 \begin{align*}8x^4x+5x^2+11x^410\end{align*}
 \begin{align*}84x+3x^3\end{align*}
 \begin{align*}16+5f^87f^3\end{align*}
 \begin{align*}5+2x5x^2+8x^3\end{align*}
 \begin{align*}x^29x^4+12\end{align*}
Mixed Review
 Solve by graphing \begin{align*}\begin{cases} y=\frac{1}{3} x4\\ y=4x+10 \end{cases}\end{align*}.
 Solve for \begin{align*}u\end{align*}: \begin{align*}12= \frac{4}{u}\end{align*}.
 Graph \begin{align*}y=x4+3\end{align*} on a coordinate plane.
 State its domain and range.
 How has this graph been shifted from the parent function \begin{align*}f(x)=x\end{align*}?
 Two dice are rolled. The sum of the values are recorded.
 Define the sample space.
 What is the probability the sum of the dice is nine?
 Consider the equation \begin{align*}y=6500(0.8)^x\end{align*}.
 Sketch the graph of this function.
 Is this exponential growth or decay?
 What is the initial value?
 What is its domain and range?
 What is the value when \begin{align*}x=9.5\end{align*}?
 Write an equation for the line that is perpendicular to \begin{align*}y=5\end{align*} and contains the ordered pair (6, –5).