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## Evaluate and estimate numerical square and cube roots

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Suppose that a shoemaker has determined that the optimal weight in ounces of a pair of running shoes is $\sqrt[4]{20000}$ . How many ounces would this be? Is there a way that you could rewrite this expression to make it easier to grasp? In this Concept, you'll learn how to simplify radical expressions like this one so that you can write them in multiple ways.

### Guidance

Radicals are the roots of values. In fact, the word radical comes from the Latin word “radix,” meaning “root.” You are most comfortable with the square root symbol $\sqrt{x}$ ; however, there are many more radical symbols.

A radical is a mathematical expression involving a root by means of a radical sign.

$\sqrt[3]{y}=x && \text{because} \ x^3=y && \sqrt[3]{27}=3, \ because \ 3^3=27\\\sqrt[4]{y}=x && \text{because} \ x^4=y && \sqrt[4]{16}=2 \ because \ 2^4=16\\\sqrt[n]{y}=x && \text{because} \ x^n=y &&$

Some roots do not have real values; in this case, they are called undefined .

Even roots of negative numbers are undefined .

$\sqrt[n]{x}$ is undefined when $n$ is an even whole number and $x<0$ .

#### Example A

• $\sqrt[3]{64}$
• $\sqrt[4]{-81}$

Solution:

$\sqrt[3]{64} = 4$ because $4^3=64$

$\sqrt[4]{-81}$ is undefined because $n$ is an even whole number and $-81<0$ .

In a previous Concept, you learned how to evaluate rational exponents:

$a^{\frac{x}{y}} \ where \ x=power \ and \ y=root$

This can be written in radical notation using the following property.

Rational Exponent Property: For integer values of $x$ and whole values of $y$ :

$a^{\frac{x}{y}}= \sqrt[y]{a^x}$

#### Example B

Rewrite $x^{\frac{5}{6}}$ using radical notation.

Solution:

This is correctly read as the sixth root of $x$ to the fifth power. Writing in radical notation, $x^{\frac{5}{6}}=\sqrt[6]{x^5}$ , where $x^5>0$ .

You can also simplify other radicals, like cube roots and fourth roots.

#### Example C

Simplify $\sqrt[3]{135}$ .

Solution:

Begin by finding the prime factorization of 135. This is easily done by using a factor tree.

$&\sqrt[3]{135}= \sqrt[3]{3 \cdot 3 \cdot 3 \cdot 5} = \sqrt[3]{3^3} \cdot \sqrt[3]{5}\\& 3 \sqrt[3]{5}$

### Guided Practice

Evaluate $\sqrt[4]{4^2}$ .

Solution: This is read, “The fourth root of four to the second power.”

$4^2=16$

The fourth root of 16 is 2; therefore,

$\sqrt[4]{4^2}=2$

### Practice

Sample explanations for some of the practice exercises below are available by viewing the following videos. Note that there is not always a match between the number of the practice exercise in the videos and the number of the practice exercise listed in the following exercise set. However, the practice exercise is the same in both. CK-12 Basic Algebra: Radical Expressions with Higher Roots (8:46)

1. For which values of $n$ is $\sqrt[n]{-16}$ undefined?

1. $\sqrt{169}$
2. $\sqrt[4]{81}$
3. $\sqrt[3]{-125}$
4. $\sqrt[5]{1024}$

Write each expression as a rational exponent.

1. $\sqrt[3]{14}$
2. $\sqrt[4]{zw}$
3. $\sqrt{a}$
4. $\sqrt[9]{y^3}$

Write the following expressions in simplest radical form.

1. $\sqrt{24}$
2. $\sqrt{300}$
3. $\sqrt[5]{96}$
4. $\sqrt{\frac{240}{567}}$
5. $\sqrt[3]{500}$
6. $\sqrt[6]{64x^8}$

### Vocabulary Language: English Spanish

A mathematical expression involving a root by means of a radical sign. The word radical comes from the Latin word radix, meaning root.
Rational Exponent Property

Rational Exponent Property

For integer values of $x$ and whole values of $y$: $a^{\frac{x}{y}}= \sqrt[y]{a^x}$

A radical expression is an expression with numbers, operations and radicals in it.
Rationalize the denominator

Rationalize the denominator

To rationalize the denominator means to rewrite the fraction so that the denominator no longer contains a radical.
Variable Expression

Variable Expression

A variable expression is a mathematical phrase that contains at least one variable or unknown quantity.