Properties of Rational Numbers
One day, Jason leaves his house and starts walking to school. After three blocks, he stops to tie his shoe and leaves his lunch bag sitting on the curb. Two blocks farther on, he realizes his lunch is missing and goes back to get it. After picking up his lunch, he walks six more blocks to arrive at school. How far is the school from Jason’s house? And how far did Jason actually walk to get there?
Graph and Compare Integers
Integers are the counting numbers (1, 2, 3...), the negative opposites of the counting numbers (1, 2, 3...), and zero. There are an infinite number of integers and examples are 0, 3, 76, 2, 11, and 995.
Comparing Numbers
Compare the numbers 2 and 5.
When we plot numbers on a number line, the greatest number is farthest to the right, and the least is farthest to the left.
In the diagram above, we can see that 2 is farther to the right on the number line than 5, so we say that 2 is greater than 5. We use the symbol “
Classifying Rational Numbers
When we divide an integer
You can think of a rational number as a fraction of a cake. If you cut the cake into
For example, when we see the rational number
With the rational number
The rational number
Proper fractions are rational numbers where the numerator is less than the denominator. A proper fraction represents a number less than one.
Improper fractions are rational numbers where the numerator is greater than or equal to the denominator. An improper fraction can be rewritten as a mixed number – an integer plus a proper fraction. For example,
Equivalent fractions are two fractions that represent the same amount. For example, look at a visual representation of the rational number
You can see that the shaded regions are the same size, so the two fractions are equivalent. We can convert one fraction into the other by reducing the fraction, or writing it in lowest terms. To do this, we write out the prime factors of both the numerator and the denominator and cancel matching factors that appear in both the numerator and denominator.
Reducing a fraction doesn’t change the value of the fraction—it just simplifies the way we write it. Once we’ve canceled all common factors, the fraction is in its simplest form.
Classifying and Simplifying Numbers
Classify and simplify the following rational numbers
a)
3 and 7 are both prime, so we can't factor them. That means
b)
Order Rational Numbers
Ordering rational numbers is simply a matter of arranging them by increasing value—least first and greatest last.
Ordering Fractions
1. Put the following fractions in order from least to greatest:
Simple fractions are easy to order—we just know, for example, that onehalf is greater than one quarter, and that two thirds is bigger than onehalf. But how do we compare more complex fractions?
2. Which is greater,
In order to determine this, we need to rewrite the fractions so we can compare them more easily. If we rewrite each as an equivalent fraction so that both have the same denominators, then we can compare them directly. To do this, we need to find the lowest common denominator (LCD), or the least common multiple of the two denominators.
The lowest common multiple of 7 and 9 is 63. Our fraction will be represented by a shape divided into 63 sections. This time we will use a rectangle cut into 9 by
7 divides into 63 nine times, so
We can multiply the numerator and the denominator both by 9 because that’s really just the opposite of reducing the fraction. To get back from
The fractions
Therefore,
9 divides into 63 seven times, so
By writing the fractions with a common denominator of 63, we can easily compare them. If we take the 28 shaded boxes out of 63 (from our image of
Since
Graph and Order Rational Numbers
To plot noninteger rational numbers (fractions) on the number line, we can convert them to mixed numbers (graphing is one of the few occasions in algebra when it’s better to use mixed numbers than improper fractions), or we can convert them to decimal form.
Plotting Numbers on a Number Line
Plot the following rational numbers on the number line.
a)
If we divide the number line into subintervals based on the denominator of the fraction, we can look at the fraction’s numerator to determine how many of these subintervals we need to include.
b)
\begin{align*}\frac{3}{7}\end{align*}
Examples
Example 1
Classify and simplify the rational number \begin{align*}\frac{50}{60}\end{align*}
\begin{align*}\frac{50}{60}\end{align*}
Example 2
Plot the rational number \begin{align*}\frac{17}{5}\end{align*}
\begin{align*}\frac{17}{5}\end{align*}
Another way to graph this fraction would be as a decimal. \begin{align*}3\frac{2}{5}\end{align*}
Review

Order the numbers \begin{align*}2, \text{}\tfrac{5}{2}, \tfrac{5}{2}\end{align*}
2,52,52 from least to greatest. 
The tickmarks on the number line represent evenly spaced integers. Find the values of
\begin{align*}a, b, c, d, \text{ and } e\end{align*}a,b,c,d, and e .
In 35, determine what fraction of the whole each shaded region represents.
For 610, place the following sets of rational numbers in order, from least to greatest.
 \begin{align*}\frac{1}{2}, \frac{1}{3}, \frac{1}{4}\end{align*}
12,13,14  \begin{align*}\frac{1}{10}, \frac{1}{2}, \frac{2}{5}, \frac{1}{4}, \frac{7}{20}\end{align*}
110,12,25,14,720  \begin{align*}\frac{39}{60}, \frac{49}{80}, \frac{59}{100}\end{align*}
3960,4980,59100  \begin{align*}\frac{7}{11}, \frac{8}{13}, \frac{12}{19}\end{align*}
711,813,1219  \begin{align*}\frac{9}{5}, \frac{22}{15}, \frac{4}{3}\end{align*}
95,2215,43
For 1115, find the simplest form of the following rational numbers.
 \begin{align*}\frac{22}{44}\end{align*}
2244  \begin{align*}\frac{9}{27}\end{align*}
927  \begin{align*}\frac{12}{18}\end{align*}
1218  \begin{align*}\frac{315}{420}\end{align*}
315420  \begin{align*}\frac{244}{168}\end{align*}
244168
Review (Answers)
To view the Review answers, open this PDF file and look for section 2.1.