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Biotechnology

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Biotechnology
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Vocabulary

annealing

annealing

Second step of the PCR process; involves binding of primers to denatured DNA strands.
biotechnology

biotechnology

Use of technology to change the genetic makeup of living things in order to produce useful products.
denaturing

denaturing

First step of the PCR process; involves heating DNA to break the bonds holding together the two DNA strands.
DNA ligase

DNA ligase

Enzyme that ligates (combines) two pieces of DNA together.
extension

extension

Third step of the PCR process; involves Taq polymerase adding nucleotides to the primers, producing new DNA molecules.
gene cloning

gene cloning

Process of isolating and making copies of a gene.
genetic engineering

genetic engineering

Using biotechnology to change the genetic makeup of an organism.
ligation

ligation

Process of combining two pieces of DNA together.
plasmid

plasmid

Small, circular piece of DNA in a prokaryotic cell.
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

Biotechnology process that makes many copies of a gene or other DNA segment.
primer

primer

Short segment of DNA; used to initiate extension by DNA polymerase during the PCR process.
recombinant DNA

recombinant DNA

DNA that results when DNA from two organisms is combined
Taq polymerase

Taq polymerase

An enzyme that adds nucleotides to the primers; also known as Taq DNA polymerase.
transformation

transformation

Changing an organism by inserting novel DNA into the organism; inserting recombinant DNA into a living cell, usually a bacterial cell.

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