What is a biological catalyst?
This super fast train can obviously reach great speeds. And there's a lot of technology that helps this train go fast. Speaking of helping things go fast brings us to enzymes. Life could not exist without enzymes. Essentially, enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up biochemical reactions.
Enzymes and Biochemical Reactions
Most chemical reactions within organisms would be impossible under the conditions in cells. For example, the body temperature of most organisms is too low for reactions to occur quickly enough to carry out life processes. Reactants or ingredients may also be present in such low concentrations that it is unlikely they will meet and collide. Therefore, the rate of most biochemical reactions must be increased by a catalyst. A catalyst is a chemical that speeds up chemical reactions. In organisms, catalysts are called enzymes. Essentially, enzymes are biological catalysts.
Like other catalysts, enzymes are not reactants in the reactions they control. They help the reactants interact but are not used up in the reactions. Instead, they may be used over and over again. Unlike other catalysts, enzymes are usually highly specific. The fit together with particular reactants like a lock and a key.
Enzymes are extremely efficient in speeding up reactions. They can catalyze up to several million reactions per second. As a result, the difference in rates of biochemical reactions with and without enzymes may be enormous. A typical biochemical reaction might take hours or even days to occur under normal cellular conditions without an enzyme, but less than a second with an enzyme.
In animals, an important function of enzymes is to help digest food. Digestive enzymes speed up reactions that break down large molecules of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats into smaller molecules the body can use. Without digestive enzymes, animals would not be able to break down food molecules quickly enough to provide the energy and nutrients they need to survive.