How do you slice a molecule of glucose in half?
With sharp knives? Not really. But you lyse it through glycolysis. This is an extremely important part of cellular respiration. It happens all the time, both with and without oxygen. And in the process, transfers some energy to ATP.
Cellular Respiration Stage I: Glycolysis
The first stage of cellular respiration is glycolysis. It does not require oxygen, and it does not take place in the mitochondrion - it takes place in the cytosol of the cytoplasm.
When was the last time you enjoyed yogurt on your breakfast cereal, or had a tetanus shot? These experiences may appear unconnected, but both relate to bacteria which do not use oxygen to make ATP. In fact, tetanus bacteria cannot survive if oxygen is present. However, Lactobacillus acidophilus (bacteria which make yogurt) and Clostridium tetani (bacteria which cause tetanus or lockjaw) share with nearly all organisms the first stage of cellular respiration, glycolysis. Because glycolysis is universal, whereas aerobic (oxygen-requiring) cellular respiration is not, most biologists consider it to be the most fundamental and primitive pathway for making ATP.
The word glycolysis means “glucose splitting,” which is exactly what happens in this stage. Enzymes split a molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate (also known as pyruvic acid). This occurs in several steps, as shown in Figure below. You can watch an animation of the steps of glycolysis at this link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6JGXayUyNVw.
In glycolysis, glucose (C6) is split into two 3-carbon (C3) pyruvate molecules. This releases energy, which is transferred to ATP. How many ATP molecules are made during this stage of cellular respiration?
Results of Glycolysis
Energy is needed at the start of glycolysis to split the glucose molecule into two pyruvate molecules. These two molecules go on to stage II of cellular respiration. The energy to split glucose is provided by two molecules of ATP. As glycolysis proceeds, energy is released, and the energy is used to make four molecules of ATP. As a result, there is a net gain of two ATP molecules during glycolysis. During this stage, high-energy electrons are also transferred to molecules of NAD+ to produce two molecules of NADH, another energy-carrying molecule. NADH is used in stage III of cellular respiration to make more ATP.
- The first stage of cellular respiration is glycolysis. It does not require oxygen.
- During glycolysis, one glucose molecule is split into two pyruvate molecules, using 2 ATP while producing 4 ATP and 2 NADH molecules.
Use these resources to answer the questions that follow.
- http://www.hippocampus.org/Biology Biology for AP* Search: Glycolsis: Summary
- http://www.hippocampus.org/Biology Biology for AP* Search: Glycolysis: Overview
- How do cells get chemical energy?
- Define glycolysis. Where does glycolysis take place?
- When is the maximum amount of energy released?
- How can glycolysis be regulated?
- What is hexokinase?
- http://www.hippocampus.org/Biology Biology for AP* Search: The Glycolytic Pathway
- What does glucose supply? Where does glucose come from?
- Describe the overall process of glycolysis.
- What happens during the energy gaining phase of glycolysis?
- What is the total gain in ATP from glycolysis?
- What is an isomerase?
- Why are reactions 1, 3, and 10 considered spontaneous?
- What are the final products of glycolysis?
- http://www.hippocampus.org/Biology Biology for AP* Search: The Regulation of Glycolysis
- What are the major control points of glycolysis?
- Define feedback inhibition.
- How is PFK regulated during glycolysis?
- Is citrate an inhibitor or activator of PFK?
- Glycolysis at http://johnkyrk.com/glycolysis.html.
1. What is glycolysis?
2. Describe what happens during glycolysis. How many ATP molecules are gained during this stage?
3. Defend this statement: "Glycolysis is a universal and ancient pathway for making ATP."