The skeletal system consists of all the bones of the body. How important are your bones?
Try to imagine what you would look like without them. You would be a soft, wobbly pile of skin, muscles, and internal organs, so you might look something like a very large slug. Not that you would be able to see yourself—folds of skin would droop down over your eyes and block your vision because of your lack of skull bones. You could push the skin out of the way, if you could only move your arms, but you need bones for that as well!
The human skeleton is an internal framework that, in adults, consists of 206 bones, most of which are shown in Figure below. Learn more about bones in the animation “Bones Narrated”: http://medtropolis.com/virtual-body/
In addition to bones, the skeleton also consists of cartilage and ligaments:
- Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue, made of tough protein fibers, that provides a smooth surface for the movement of bones at joints.
- A ligament is a band of fibrous connective tissue that holds bones together and keeps them in place.
The human skeleton consists of bones, cartilage, and ligaments.
The skeleton supports the body and gives it shape. It has several other functions as well, including:
- protecting internal organs
- providing attachment surfaces for muscles
- producing blood cells
- storing minerals
- maintaining mineral homeostasis.
Maintaining mineral homeostasis is a very important function of the skeleton, because just the right levels of calcium and other minerals are needed in the blood for normal functioning of the body. When mineral levels in the blood are too high, bones absorb some of the minerals and store them as mineral salts, which is why bones are so hard. When blood levels of minerals are too low, bones release some of the minerals back into the blood, thus restoring homeostasis.
- The adult human skeleton includes 206 bones and other tissues.
- The skeleton supports the body, protects internal organs, produces blood cells, and maintains mineral homeostasis.
Explore More I
Use this resource to answer the questions that follow.
- Skeletal System - Anatomy and Physiology at http://www.getbodysmart.com/ap/skeletalsystem/skeleton/menu/menu.html.
- Compare the axial skeleton to the appendicular skeleton.
- What bones fuse together to form the os coxa or hip bone?
- What is another name for the clavicle?
- What is the role of the atlas bone?
- What is the sacral canal?
Explore More II
- Skeleton Game at http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/body/index_interactivebody.shtml.
- What is cartilage? What is its role in the skeletal system?
- List three functions of the human skeleton.
- Explain how bones maintain mineral homeostasis in the body.