# Chapter 8: Organizing and Displaying Data for Comparison

**Introduction**

Throughout this book, you have learned about variables. You have learned about random variables, discrete variables, continuous variables, numerical (or quantitative) variables, and categorical (or qualitative) variables. The various forms of graphical representations you have learned about in the previous chapters can be added to your learning of variables. The graphic below may help to summarize what you have learned.

Broken-line graphs, histograms, pie charts, stem-and-leaf plots, and box-and-whisker plots all represent useful (often very useful) tools in determining trends. Broken-line graphs, for example, allow you to show situations such as the distance traveled in specific time spans. Histograms use continuous grouped data to show the frequency trend in the data. Bar graphs are a little different from histograms in that they use grouped discrete data, as do stem-and-leaf plots. Bar graphs, as you know, have gaps between the columns, while histograms do not. Stem-and-leaf plots are excellent for giving you a quick visual representation of data. Used for only smaller sets of data, stem-and-leaf plots are a good example of representations of grouped discrete data. Box-and-whisker plots are a final visual way of representing grouped data that you have learned about in the previous chapters. In a box-and-whisker plot, you are able to find the five-number summary to describe the spread of the data.

## Chapter Outline

- 8.1. Review
- 8.2. Double Line Graphs
- 8.3. Two-Sided Stem-and-Leaf Plots
- 8.4. Double Bar Graphs
- 8.5. Double Box-and-Whisker Plots
- 8.6. Review Questions