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10.3: A Special <d>

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12
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A Special <d>

1. There is one time when the <d> spelling of [d] may be hard to remember - because sometimes it is hard to hear the [d] sound at all. For instance, in the word grandmother some people pronounce the <d>, but most people usually do not. Most often it sounds like [granmuthər], with no [d] sound.

2. Read aloud the words in the Word column. Listen for whether or not you pronounce the <d>'s. Sometimes you may hear a clear [d]; sometimes the <d> may be pronounced more like [t]; sometimes it may be left out completely. Don't be surprised if you hear different people saying the <d>'s in these words differently. We're allowed a certain amount of choice here. Analyze the words as instructed in the Analysis column:

Word Analysis
friendship Noun + suffix = friend + ship
surrounds Verb + suffix =
handkerchief Noun + noun =
comprehends Verb + suffix =
handful Noun + suffix =
grounds Noun + suffix =
thousands Noun + suffix =
bands Noun + suffix =
grandfather Adjective + noun =
spends Verb + suffix =
handsome Noun + suffix =
husbands Noun + suffix =
landscape Noun + suffix =
handsful Noun + suffix + suffix =
suspends Verb + suffix =
weekends Noun + suffix + suffix =
grandma Adjective + noun =
corresponds Verb + suffix =
islands Noun + suffix =
attends Verb + suffix =
sounds Verb + suffix =
playgrounds Noun + suffix =
bookends Noun + noun + suffix =

3. In all of these words, where is the <d> in its element–at the front, the end, or in the middle? ___. What letter is right in front of the <d> in each case? ________. Is there a vowel after the <d> each time, or is it a consonant? ________. What letter usually comes right after the <d> in these words? ________.

4. Sometimes a <d> may not be pronounced if it comes at the ________ of its element, and it has an ________ in front of it and a ________ after it, especially the letter ________.

Word Histories. The word handkerchief analyzes to hand “hand” + kerchief “cover for the head.” The stem kerchief analyzes in turn to ker + chief. Ker is all that is left of older version of the word cover. Chief means “head. (The words chief and chef are very closely related.)

The word handsome also contains hand meaning “hand.” The suffix -some forms adjectives. Originally handsome meant “easy to handle, ready at hand.” Then it came to mean “handy, convenient, suitable” and later “of fair size or amount” (as in the phrase a handsome reward). Finally it came to its most common modern meaning: “having a fine form or figure, good looking.”

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Date Created:
Feb 23, 2012
Last Modified:
Oct 09, 2015
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