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# 10.6: Long <o> and the VCC Pattern

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12

## Long <o> and the VCC Pattern

1. You have seen that the VCC pattern is very useful for marking short vowels. But because of things that happened hundreds of years ago in our language, long <o> often occurs in VCC patterns, where we would normally expect a short vowel, as in the words ghost and gold. In the following words underline the letters spelling [ō] and the next two letters after the [ō]:

beholdtollsoldierrollerwhollycoldestfolksknollboldertoldgoldenrevoltedunfoldcoltsscoldedfolderboltedstrollermoldyyolk\begin{align*}& \text{behold} && \text{wholly} && \text{bolder} && \text{unfold} && \text{bolted} \\ & \text{toll} && \text{coldest} && \text{told} && \text{colts} && \text{stroller} \\ & \text{soldier} && \text{folks} && \text{golden} && \text{scolded} && \text{moldy} \\ & \text{roller} && \text{knoll} && \text{revolted} && \text{folder} && \text{yolk}\end{align*}

2. You should have found that in each word the first letter after the [ō] was the same. That letter is ______. You should have found that the second letter after the [ō] was always one of four letters. Those four letters are ______, ______, ______, and ______.

3. With that information you should be able to sort the twenty words into the following four groups:

4. Long <o>, [ō], is often spelled <o> in the VCC patterns ______, ______, ______, and ______.

5. Right in front of the consonant letters <ss> and <st> the letter <o> sometimes spells long <o> and sometimes it spells short <o>. Read the following words carefully and be sure you know how each is pronounced:

costgrosspossiblecostumemostfosterengrossalmostblossomghostgossipbossespostagelostpostutmostnostrilhostesshostileengrossed\begin{align*}& \text{cost} && \text{most} && \text{blossom} && \text{postage} && \text{nostril} \\ & \text{gross} && \text{foster} && \text{ghost} && \text{lost} && \text{hostess} \\ & \text{possible} && \text{engross} && \text{gossip} && \text{post} && \text{hostile} \\ & \text{costume} && \text{almost} && \text{bosses} && \text{utmost} && \text{engrossed}\end{align*}

Sort the words into this matrix:

6. Sometimes the letter <o> in front of <th> spells short <o>, as in bother; sometimes it spells long <o>, as in both; and sometimes it spells short <u>\begin{align*}<\text{u}>\end{align*}, [u], as in brother. Read each of the following words carefully and be sure you know how each is pronounced:

botherednothingclothebothmotheranotherbrotherbrothmothclothingquothsmotherclothotherwisefrothy\begin{align*}& \text{bothered} && \text{both} && \text{brother} && \text{clothing} && \text{cloth} \\ & \text{nothing} && \text{mother} && \text{broth} && \text{quoth} && \text{otherwise} \\ & \text{clothe} && \text{another} && \text{moth} && \text{smother} && \text{frothy}\end{align*}

Sort the words into these three groups:

7. In a few words <o> before <th> spells long <o>, but usually it spells ______ or ______.

8. In this lesson you have looked at seven cases where <o>, sometimes spells long <o> in a VCC string. One case was <oth>. What were the other six?

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