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Review of Stems and Simple Addition

1. If we start with the word repainted and take away the prefix re-, we have the base and suffix left, painted. But if we start with the word repainted and take away the suffix -ed, we have the prefix and base left, repaint. In either case, the part that we have left after we take away the prefix or suffix is called the stem. The stem is whatever we have left when we take away prefixes or suffixes. Notice that what the stem is in a word depends on what we are taking away from the word.

A stem always has to contain at least one base. It may or may not contain prefixes or suffixes, but it always must contain a base. A free stem can stand free as a separate word; a bound stem cannot.

We also use the word stem to refer to the base plus any other elements to which we are going to add a prefix or a suffix. So if we wanted to add the meaning “in the past” to the verb repaint, we could add the suffix -ed to the stem repaint. And if we wanted to add the meaning “again” to the verb painted, we could add the prefix re- to the stem painted.

2. Analyze each of the following words into prefix or suffix and stem as directed in the Formula column. Some of the stems will be free and some will be bound:

Word Formula Analysis
disclaimer Prefix + stem
disclaimer Stem + suffix
instructor Prefix + stem
instructor Stem + suffix
reduction Prefix + stem
reduction Stem + suffix
overcooked Prefix + stem
overcooked Stem + suffix
perfected Prefix + stem
perfected Stem + suffix
preschooler Prefix + stem
preschooler Stem + suffix

3. Usually when elements combine to make new words, they simply add together,with no change in spelling. This process is called simple addition, and the Rule of Simple Addition is the biggest, simplest, and most important spelling rule:

The Rule of Simple Addition. Unless you know some special reason for making a change, when you add two elements together to spell a word, simply add them together and don't make any changes in their spelling.

4. Below you are given some elements - prefixes, bases (both free ones and bound ones), and suffixes. Combine them to make words. They all combine by simple addition:

Elements = Word
dis + claim + er =
ab + rupt + ly =
phys + ic + s =
re + cept + acle + s =
intro +duct + ion + s =
re + cept + ion + ist =
sub + ject + ive + ly =
re + com + mend + er =
un + doubt + ed + ly =
per + fect + ion + ist + s =
in + ex + act + ly =
pro + duct + ion =

5. a. Usually when elements combine to make words, they go together by _____ _____. A stem always contains at least one ________. Two things that can be either free or bound are ________ and ________.

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1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5

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Feb 23, 2012

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Apr 29, 2014
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