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14.5: Lesson Twenty-nine

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The Suffixes -al, -ial, and -ual

1. We have two suffixes spelled <al>. One -al changes verbs to nouns: renew + al = renewal. The other -al changes nouns and bound bases into adjectives: incident + al = incidental and capit + al = capital. Analyze each of the following words into its stem plus -al. Show any changes that took place when the stem and suffix combined. Then answer the questions in the two right hand columns:

Original Word Analysis: Stem + Suffix Is the original word a noun, or is it an adjective? Is the stem a noun, or is it a verb, or is it bound?
survival surviv\cancel{e} + al Noun Verb
dismissal
principal
physical
occasional
trial
referral
natural
professional
refusal
agricultural
arrival

2. The suffix -al that changes nouns and bound stems to adjectives has two other forms, -ial and -ual. We will look at the reasons for these two forms later, but for now we will just analyze some adjectives that contain them, in order to get used to seeing and hearing them. Analyze each of the following adjectives into a stem plus either -ial or -ual, showing any changes that took place when the stem and suffix combined. Then answer the question in the right hand column

Adjective = Stem + Suffix Is the stem a noun, or is it bound?
actual = act + ual Noun
eventual =
presidential =
commercial =
financial =
editorial =
intellectual =
racial =
official =
usual =
individual =
annual =
spiritual =
essential =
celestial =

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1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5

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Feb 23, 2012

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Apr 29, 2014
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