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14.7: The Suffixes -ed and -ing with -ly

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12
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The Suffixes -ed and -ing with -ly

1. The suffix -ed adds the meanings “in the past” and “action completed” to verbs:

They cooked the turkey yesterday, (-ed = “in the past”)

The turkey is already cooked, (-ed = “action completed”)

The suffix -ing adds to verbs the meanings “right now, in the present” and “action still going on, action not yet completed.”

They are cooking the turkey right now. (-ing = “in the present”) The turkey was cooking but now it's cooked, (-ing = “action not yet completed”; -ed = “action completed.”)

Using -ed to mean the two things it means makes sense, because if something is in the past, probably it is completed, and if it is now completed, it must have happened in the past. Be ready to discuss this question: Why does it make sense to use -ing to mean both “in the present” and “action not yet completed”?

2. Once the suffix -ing with the meaning “action not yet completed” or -ed with the meaning “action completed” is added to a verb, we can use that new word as an adjective. And we can add -ly to that adjective to make an adverb:

In the sentence The puppies entertain us a lot, entertain is a verb.

In the sentence The puppies are very entertaining, entertaining is an adjective modifying puppies.

In The puppies play entertainingly, entertainingly is an adverb modifying the verb play.

We can do the same thing with -ed:

In the sentence His habits disgust her, disgust is a verb.

In She is very disgusted by his habits, disgusted is an adjective modifying she.

In She described his habits disgustedly, disgustedly is an adverb modifying the verb described.

3. Analyze each of the following adverbs into a verb plus suffixes. Two of the adverbs have prefixes in front of the verb:

Adverb Analysis Verb + Suffixes
disgustedly disgust + ed + ly

4. Combine the following elements to form adverbs. Show any changes that occur when the elements combine:

Elements Adverb
enter + tain + ing + ly entertainingly
ad + mit + ed + ly
ad + prove + ing + ly
sur + prise + ing + ly
un + hurry + ed + ly
inter + est + ed + ly
pro + mise + ing + ly
di + stingu + ish + ed + ly

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Date Created:
Feb 23, 2012
Last Modified:
Jan 16, 2015
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