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# 16.1: How Do You Spell [f]?

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12

## How Do You Spell [f]?

1. You can hear the sound [f] at the beginning and end of the word fluff. Underline the letters that spell [f] in the following words:

fluorescentefficientfascinatebuffalofeistyscientificfastenerindifferentnotifycounterfeitprofanitydefraudedheifercertifygolfcoffeewafflesfezzesforeignfriendlyshelfdefiniteiffyfinancier\begin{align*}&\text {fluorescent} && \text {fastener} && \text {heifer} && \text {foreign}\\ &\text {efficient}&& \text {indifferent}&& \text {certify}&& \text {friendly} \\ &\text {fascinate}&& \text {notify}&& \text {golf}&& \text {shelf}\\ &\text {buffalo}&& \text {counterfeit}&& \text {coffee}&& \text {definite}\\ &\text {feisty}&& \text {profanity}&& \text {waffles}&& \text {iffy}\\ &\text {scientific}&& \text {defrauded}&& \text {fezzes}&& \text {financier}\end{align*}

2. Sort the words into the following two groups:

About 90% of the time [f] is spelled one of these two ways.

3. Most of the time [f] is spelled _______ or ______.

4. It is usually easy to know when to use <f> and <ff>. The <ff> is always there for good reasons. Most often it is due to assimilation or the VCC pattern, or it is between a short vowel and <le>. Less often it is due to twinning or simple addition.

With <ff> the VCC pattern rather than the VC# is usual at the end of words, as in stiff and staff rather than *stif or *staf. The only words that end with a single <f> following a short vowel are the French chef and clef and the English word if. So the only cases of [f] spelled <ff> due to twinning are in iffy, iffier, and iffiest.

In the following words, if the <ff> spelling is due to assimilation, twinning, or simple addition, analyze the word into prefix, base, and suffix to show where the <ff> spelling comes from. If the <ff> is due to the VCC pattern or is between a short vowel and <le>, just write ‘VCC’ or ‘<ffle>’ in the Analysis column. Remember that VCC rather than VC# is normal for [f] at the end of the word:

Word Analysis
affection
iffy
offering
sheriff
effective
shelfful
gruff
buffalo
indifferent
efficient
waffles
daffodil
suffered
iffiest
coffee

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