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16.16: Sometimes [ch] is Spelled <t>

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12
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Sometimes [ch] is Spelled <t>

1. About two-thirds of the time [ch] is spelled either <ch> or <tch>, and we can practically always tell when to pick <ch> and when to pick <tch>. About one-third of the time [ch] is spelled <t>. This <t> spelling is very much like the <t> spelling of [sh] and the <d> spelling of [j] with which you have already worked. It, too, is due to palatalization. Underline the letters that spell [ch] in the following words:

\begin{align*}& \text {culture} && \text {suggestion} && \text {actual} && \text {virtue}\\ &\text {intellectual} && \text {spiritual} && \text {literature}&& \text {congestion}\\ &\text {questions} && \text {situation} && \text {indigestion} && \text {perpetual}\\ &\text {unfortunately} && \text {mortuary} && \text {ritual} && \text {statue}\\ &\text {naturally}&& \text {eventual} && \text {adventurous} && \text {celestial}\end{align*}

2. Now sort the words into these two groups:

2. In these words, which vowel is stressed: the one in front of the [ch] or the one after it? _______ What letter usually follows the t' that spells [ch]? _______

3. Most of the time when [ch] is spelled <t>, there is a \begin{align*}<\text{u}>\end{align*} after the <t>. But often a <t> that spells [ch] is followed by an \begin{align*}<\text{i}>\end{align*}. In earlier lessons you saw that a <t> right in front of two unstressed vowels spells the sound [sh], as in deletion and spatial. However, when the <t> has an \begin{align*}<\text{s}>\end{align*} right in front of it, the <t> doesn't spell [sh]; it spells [ch], as in question and celestial. This is another case of a smaller, stronger pattern inside a larger pattern.

4. Below you are given prefixes, bases, and suffixes to combine. In each case you should produce a word that contains [ch] spelled <t> due to palatalization. Show any changes:

Prefixes, Bases, and Suffixes Words with [ch] Spelled <t>
dis + gest + ion
spirit + ual
quest + ion + er
act + ual + ly
ad + vent + ure + ous
script + ure + al
liter + ate + ure
virtue + ous
com + gest +ion
celest + ial
per + pete + ual
sub + gest + ion + s

You can see that very nearly all the time when [ch] is spelled <t>, the <t> is either followed by an unstressed \begin{align*}<\text{u}>\end{align*} or it is followed by the suffix -ion and has an \begin{align*}<\text{s}>\end{align*} right in front of it.

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Date Created:
Feb 23, 2012
Last Modified:
Oct 09, 2015
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