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5.1: Review of Letters, Vowel Sounds, and Patterns

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12
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Review of Letters, Vowel Sounds, and Patterns

1. Vowel and Consonant Letters. The letters \begin{align*}<\text{a}>\end{align*}, <e>, \begin{align*}<\text{i}>\end{align*}, and <o> are always vowels. The letters \begin{align*}<\text{u}>\end{align*}, <w>, and <y> are sometimes vowels and sometimes consonants. The other nineteen letters are always consonants.

The letter <y> is a consonant only when it spells the [y] sound it spells in words like yes and beyond. Everyplace else it's a vowel.

The letter \begin{align*}<\text{u}>\end{align*} is a consonant only when it comes right after the letter <q> or when it spells the [w] sound as it does in language and quick. Everyplace else it's a vowel.

The letter <w> is usually a consonant. It is a vowel only when it helps \begin{align*}<\text{a}>\end{align*}, <e>, or <o> spell vowel sounds, as in fawn, flew, and cows.

2. Vowel Sounds.

The short vowel sounds:

Short \begin{align*}<\text{a}>\end{align*} [a] bat

Short <e> [e] bet

Short\begin{align*}<\text{i}>\end{align*} [i] bit

Short <o> [o] cot

Short\begin{align*}<\text{u}>\end{align*} [u] cut

Dotted short \begin{align*}< \text{u}> [\dot{\text{u}}]\end{align*} cook

The long vowel sounds:

Long \begin{align*}<\text{a}>\end{align*} [ā] bait

Long <e> [ē] beet

Long\begin{align*}<\text{i}>\end{align*} [ī] bite

Long <o> [ō] boat

Long <oo> [ū] coot

Long <yu> [yū] cute

3. Read the following words aloud and then fill in the blanks:

\begin{align*} &\text{inch} &&\text{strike} &&\text{fail} &&\text{gather} &&\text{loss} &&\text{trust}\\ &\text{put} &&\text{roast} &&\text{move} &&\text{argue} &&\text{sense} &&\text{keep}\end{align*}

The word with short \begin{align*}<\text{a}>\end{align*}, [a], is _________________.

The word with long \begin{align*}<\text{a}>\end{align*}, [ā], is __________________.

The word with short <e>, [e], is _________________.

The word with long <e>, [ē], is __________________.

The word with short \begin{align*}<\text{i}>\end{align*}, [i], is _________________.

The word with long \begin{align*}<\text{i}>\end{align*}, [ī], is __________________.

The word with short <o>, [o], is _________________.

The word with long <o>, [ō], is __________________.

The word with short \begin{align*}<\text{u}>\end{align*}, [u], is __________________.

The word with dotted short \begin{align*}<\text{u}>\end{align*}, \begin{align*}[\dot{\text{u}}]\end{align*}, is __________________.

The word with long <oo>, [ū], is __________________.

The word with long <yu>, [yū], is __________________.

3. V's and C's. When we mark the vowel and consonant letters in words, we mark the vowels v and the consonants c.

Mark the vowel and consonant letters in the following words:

\begin{align*} &\text{gather} &&\text{mix} &&\text{fail} &&\text{settle} &&\text{valley}\\ &\text{losses} &&\text{glimpsed} &&\text{quiz} &&\text{thousand} &&\text{eight}\\ &\text{draws} &&\text{sense} &&\text{youth} &&\text{universe} &&\text{effort}\end{align*}

4. VCC and VCV. In the pattern VCC the vowel is usually short. In the pattern VCV the first vowel is usually long:

\begin{align*} &\text{ask}\ \text{vs.} \ \text{ate}\\ &\text{vcc}\ \quad \ \text{vcv}\end{align*}

In each of the following words a vowel is marked v. Mark the next two letters either v or c and sort the words into the matrix:

\begin{align*} &\ \text{doctor} &&\ \text{settle} &&\ \text{trust} &&\ \text{genie} &&\ \text{strike} &&\ \text{sense} &&\ \text{caged}\\ &\ \ \ \text{v} &&\ \ \text{v} &&\quad \text{v} &&\quad \text{v} &&\quad \text{v} &&\ \ \text{v} &&\ \ \text{v}\\ &\ \text{fifty} &&\ \text{problem} &&\ \text{sentence} &&\ \text{move} &&\ \text{union} &&\ \text{notice}&&\ \text{dollar}\\ &\ \ \ \text{v} &&\quad \ \text{v} &&\ \ \text{v} &&\quad \text{v} &&\ \text{v} &&\ \ \text{v} &&\ \ \text{v} \end{align*}

In the pattern VCV the first vowel is usually __________, but in the pattern VCC the vowel is usually _________.

Word Pyramids. In a Word Pyramid you pile shorter words on top of longer ones to form a pyramid. We give you the bottom and longest word. Your job is to take one letter away from that word and rearrange the letters to form a new word that is one letter shorter than the one below it. You keep doing that until you get to the top.

In the Word Pyramid below, each word must contain the sound [t] spelled <t>. The only three-letter word you can make out of vote is toe, which does contain <t> and goes right above vote. The only two-letter word you can make from toe is to. The only one-letter word with <t>, is \begin{align*}T\end{align*}, which is short for “tee shirt” and is also used in the phrase, “My new bicycle suits me to a \begin{align*}T\end{align*}.” Thus, the filled-out Pyramid would look like the following:

In the following Pyramid each word must contain a long vowel sound:

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1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5
Date Created:
Feb 23, 2012
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Jan 16, 2015
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CK.ENG.ENG.SE.1.Basic-Speller.5.1