# 6.19: Bound Bases and Bound Stems

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12

## Bound Bases and Bound Stems

1. You know that a base that can stand free as a word is called a free base. If we remove the prefix re- from the word recharge, we are left with charge, which is a free base.

You also know that a stem that can stand free as a word is called a free stem. If we remove the prefix re- from the word recharged, we are left with charged, which is a free stem. Charged is a free stem that contains the free base charge plus the suffix -ed.

A base that cannot stand free as a word is called a bound base. A bound base has to have a prefix or a suffix or another base added to it to make it into a word. If we remove the prefix re- from the word reject, we are left with ject, which is a bound base because it cannot stand free as a word. You can reject something, but you can’t just ‘ject’ it.

A stem that cannot stand free as a word is called a bound stem. If we remove the prefix re- from the word rejection, we are left with jection, which is a bound stem that contains the bound base ject and the suffix -ion.

2. A base that can stand free as a word is called a __________.

A base that cannot stand free as a word is called a __________.

A stem that is also a word is called a __________.

A stem that is not a word is called a __________.

3. In the word respect the prefix is re-. What is the base? _____. Is this a bound base or a free base? _____. Underline this base in the following words:

\begin{align*}& \text{prospect} && \text{spectator} && \text{inspector} && \text{spectacles}\end{align*}

4. In the word introduce the prefix is intro-. What is the base? __________. Is the base bound or free? __________. Underline this base in the following words:

\begin{align*}& \text{introduce} && \text{produce} && \text{deduce} && \text{reduce} && \text{induce}\end{align*}

5. In the word interception, -ion is a suffix. If you take that suffix away, what stem do you have left? __________. Is it a bound or a free stem? __________.

Now if you take the prefix inter- away from intercept, what is the base that is left? __________. Is this base bound or free? __________.

Underline this base in the following words.

\begin{align*}& \text{deceptive} && \text{percepts} && \text{accepted} && \text{excepting} && \text{reception} && \text{concepts}\end{align*}

6. In the word promote the prefix is pro-. What is the base? __________.

Underline this base in the following words. In some of the words the base ends with the letter <e>. In some the <e> has been deleted. We won't worry for now about the <e> deletion: Just underline as much of the base as you can see in the word:

\begin{align*}& \text{remote} && \text{motor} && \text{promote} && \text{demote} && \text{motion}\end{align*}

7. Each of the following words contains a prefix, a bound base, and a suffix. Analyze each word into its prefix, bound base, and suffix. This time, show any final <e> deletions:

Word = Prefix + Bound Base + Suffix
prospecting = + +
producer = + +
deception = + +
acceptable = + +
remotest = + +
inspected = + +
introducing = + +
conception = + +
promotion = + +
exception = + +
reduces = + +
intercepted = + +
demoted = + +
receptive = + +

Word Builder. In Word Builder you are given some elements—in this case, prefixes, bound bases, and suffixes. Your job is to combine them to form words. In the tables we will give you formulas that will show you what kind of elements each word is to contain and how many letters each word will have. Some of the words you build will involve final <e> deletion, which you do not have to show in this activity; just write out the word. Here are the elements you have with which to work. You can use each element more than once:

Prefixes: in-, re-

Bound Bases: cept, duce, spect, mote

Suffixes: -ed, -ion

Here is an example of a table filled out. Notice that because of final <e> deletion duce appears in the table as duc:

Now try these:

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