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7.22: The Sound [t] and Twinning

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12

The Sound [t] and Twinning

1. In those words in which [t] is spelled <tt>\begin{align*}<\text{tt}>\end{align*} it is usually easy to see why there are two <t>'s there. Here are the words from the last lesson in which [t] is spelled <tt>\begin{align*}<\text{tt}>\end{align*}.

cattailcommittedsubmittedregrettingouttalkupsettingbottomattentionattend\begin{align*}&\text{cattail} && \text{regretting} && \text{bottom}\\ &\text{committed} && \text{outtalk} && \text{attention}\\ &\text{submitted} && \text{upsetting} && \text{attend}\end{align*}

2. A compound word is a word that contains at least two free stems, or shorter words - for example, blackbird (black + bird) and dogcatcher (dog + catcher). Sometimes the first stem in a compound word ends with a <t> and the second starts starts with a <t>. Where the two parts come together through simple addition, you get <tt>\begin{align*}<\text{tt}>\end{align*}: cat + taill = cattail.

There is one other compound word in the nine words above that has [t] spelled <tt>\begin{align*}<\text{tt}>\end{align*} because the first stem ends with <t> and the second stem starts with <t>. Find the word and analyze it into its two free stems:

Compound = Free Stem #1 + Free Stem #2
= +

3. Sometimes [t] is spelled <tt>\begin{align*}<\text{tt}>\end{align*} because of twinning: upsetting = upset + t + ing.

You twin the final consonant of a word that has one vowel sound and ends _________ when you add a suffix that starts with a _________. And you twin the final consonant of a word that has two vowel sounds whenever you add a suffix that starts with a ________ if the word ends ________and has strong stress on the ________ vowel.

4. What is the suffix in the word upsetting? ________

5. Does this suffix start with a vowel? ________

6. What is the stem to which the -ing in upsetting was added? _________

7. How many vowel sounds are there is in this stem? _________

8. Does the stem end cvc? _________

9. Is there strong stess on the <e> in upset before and after you add the suffix? ________

10. Do you twin the final consonant of upset when you add a suffix like -ing? ________

11. Other than upsetting there are three more words among the nine above in which the <tt>\begin{align*}<\text{tt}>\end{align*} spelling is due to twinning. Find the three words and analyze them to show where the <tt>\begin{align*}<\text{tt}>\end{align*} comes from, as we did with upsetting:

Word = Free Stem + Suffix
upsetting = upset + t + ing
= +
= +
= +

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