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# 8.8: More Suffixes Spelled <en>

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12

## More Suffixes Spelled <en>

1. -en\begin{align*}^4\end{align*} changes nouns into verbs. This is actually the same as -en\begin{align*}^3\end{align*}, but we will treat them separately because of the difference between having adjectives or nouns as stems.

Verb = Noun + Suffix
frighten = +
happen = +
hasten = +
hearten = +
heighten = +
lengthen = +
strengthen = +
threaten = +

2. -en\begin{align*}^5\end{align*} past participle ending. You have seen that verbs usually add the suffix -ed to show that an action took place in the past. Verbs with that -ed suffix are called past tense verbs. We also often use the suffix -ed at the end of verbs that are called past participle verbs. Past participle verbs are like past tense verbs (notice that they both have the word past in their names). But past participles have an additional meaning. They have the meaning "action that is completed."

Compare the two sentences “They are finishing their chores” and “They have finished their chores.” The first sentence, with finishing, means that the work of doing the chores is still going on, but the second sentence, with finished with the suffix -ed, means that the work is over or completed, the chores are done. The verb finished in the second sentence is a past partciple.

Most past participles, like most past tense verbs, end with the suffix -ed, but some old past participles end with the suffix -en: Compare “They are eating their breakfast” with “They have eaten their breakfast.” The first sentence, with -ing, means that they are not done eating yet. The second sentence, with -en, means that they have finished eating. The verb eaten in the second sentence is a past participle.

3. Analyze each of the following past participles into verb plus suffix:

Past Participle = Verb + Suffix
beaten = +
broken = +
chosen = +
driven = +
eaten = +
fallen = +
forbidden = +
frozen = +
given = +
proven = +

4. Now try some the other way around. Add each verb and suffix to make a past participle:

Verb + Suffix = Past Participle
rise + =
spoke + =
stole + =
take + =
got + =
forbid + =
mistake + =
forgot + =
overtake + =
arise + =

5. Many past participles are used as adjectives, and many of these adjectives appear in compound words. Analyze each of the following compounds:

Compound Word = Free Stem #1 + Verb + Suffix
browbeaten = + +
downfallen = + +
heartbroken = + +
housebroken = + +
outspoken = + +
overtaken = + +
weatherbeaten = + +
downtrodden = + +
handwoven = + +
undertaken = + +

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