1. Sometimes twinning can cause [m] to be spelled <mm>: swimming = swim + m + ing. When the prefixes in- or sub- assimilate in front of a stem that starts with an <m>, they cause an <mm>: immigrant = in+ m + migrant and summon = sub+ m + mon. When any element that ends with <m> joins another element that starts with <m>, they cause an <mm> through simple addition: rommate = room + mate
2. All of the following words contain an <mm> that is caused by one of the three things listed above. Analyze each word to show where the two <m>s come from. Then in the “Cause” column write the cause for the <mm> in each word — either “Twinning,” “Assimilation,” or “Simple Addition.”
swim + m + ing
in+ m + migrant
room + mate
3. Words like the twelve below have <mm> spellings that are not due to twinning or assimilation or simple addition. In each word, label the vowel right in front of the <mm> with a V. Then label the <mm> CC, as we have done with comma:
4. What pattern did you find in all the words? ___________. Is the vowel in front of the <mm> always short? ___________
In cases where the [m] sound has a short vowel right in front of it and another vowel following it, the <mm> is necessary to fill out the VCC pattern that shows that the vowel in front of the [m] is short. For instance, if comma were spelled <coma>, it would look as if the <o> is long, as it is in the word coma.
5. So far you have worked with two spellings of [m]. They are ______ and ______.
Almost ninety-nine times out of a hundred the sound [m] will be spelled one of these two ways!