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# 10.10: Sometimes [m] is Spelled <mm>

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12

1. Sometimes twinning can cause [m] to be spelled <mm>: swimming = swim + m + ing. When the prefixes in- or sub- assimilate in front of a stem that starts with an <m>, they cause an <mm>: immigrant = in\begin{align*}\cancel{n}\end{align*} + m + migrant and summon = sub\begin{align*}\cancel{b}\end{align*} + m + mon. When any element that ends with <m> joins another element that starts with <m>, they cause an <mm> through simple addition: rommate = room + mate

2. All of the following words contain an <mm> that is caused by one of the three things listed above. Analyze each word to show where the two <m>s come from. Then in the “Cause” column write the cause for the <mm> in each word — either “Twinning,” “Assimilation,” or “Simple Addition.”

Words Analysis Cause
swimming swim + m + ing Twinning
immigrant in\begin{align*}\cancel{n}\end{align*} + m + migrant Assimilation
roommate room + mate Simple Addition
immediate
brimming
teammate
gummy
dimmest
immortal
slammed
summon
immune

3. Words like the twelve below have <mm> spellings that are not due to twinning or assimilation or simple addition. In each word, label the vowel right in front of the <mm> with a V. Then label the <mm> CC, as we have done with comma:

comma  VCCglimmermummydilemma hammerpersimmondummymammalstammergimmickmammothsummer\begin{align*}& \text{comma} && \text{dilemma } && \text{dummy} && \text{gimmick} \\ & \ \ \text{VCC} \\ \\ & \text{glimmer} && \text{hammer} && \text{mammal} && \text{mammoth} \\ \\ & \text{mummy} && \text{persimmon} && \text{stammer} && \text{summer}\end{align*}

4. What pattern did you find in all the words? ___________. Is the vowel in front of the <mm> always short? ___________

In cases where the [m] sound has a short vowel right in front of it and another vowel following it, the <mm> is necessary to fill out the VCC pattern that shows that the vowel in front of the [m] is short. For instance, if comma were spelled <coma>, it would look as if the <o> is long, as it is in the word coma.

5. So far you have worked with two spellings of [m]. They are ______ and ______.

Almost ninety-nine times out of a hundred the sound [m] will be spelled one of these two ways!

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