- Describe the distribution of Earth’s water.
- Identify water’s structure and properties.
- Define acids, bases, and pH.
- Explain why water is essential for life.
solution with a pH lower than 7
solution with a pH higher than 7
type of chemical bond that forms between molecules: found between water molecules
scale that is used to measure acidity
difference in electrical charge between different parts of the same molecule
mixture that has the same composition throughout
Water, like carbon, has a special role in living things. It is needed by all known forms of life. As you have seen, water is a simple molecule, containing just three atoms. Nonetheless, water’s structure gives it unique properties that help explain why it is vital to all living organisms.
Water, Water Everywhere
Water is a common chemical substance on planet Earth. In fact, Earth is sometimes called the “water planet” because almost 75% of its surface is covered with water. If you look at Figure below, you will see where Earth’s water is found. The term water generally refers to its liquid state, and water is a liquid over a wide range of temperatures on Earth. However, water also occurs on Earth as a solid (ice) and as a gas (water vapor).
Most of the water on Earth consists of saltwater in the oceans. What percent of Earth’s water is freshwater? Where is most of the freshwater found?
Structure and Properties of Water
No doubt, you are already aware of some of the properties of water. For example, you probably know that water is tasteless and odorless. You also probably know that water is transparent, which means that light can pass through it. This is important for organisms that live in the water, because some of them need sunlight to make food.
Chemical Structure of Water
To understand some of water’s properties, you need to know more about its chemical structure. As you have seen, each molecule of water consists of one atom of oxygen and two atoms of hydrogen. The oxygen atom in a water molecule attracts electrons more strongly than the hydrogen atoms do. As a result, the oxygen atom has a slightly negative charge, and the hydrogen atoms have a slightly positive charge. A difference in electrical charge between different parts of the same molecule is called polarity. The diagram in Figure below shows water’s polarity.
Water Molecule. This diagram shows the positive and negative parts of a water molecule.
Opposites attract when it comes to charged molecules. In the case of water, the positive (hydrogen) end of one water molecule is attracted to the negative (oxygen) end of a nearby water molecule. Because of this attraction, weak bonds form between adjacent water molecules, as shown in Figure below. The type of bond that forms between molecules is called a hydrogen bond. Bonds between molecules are not as strong as bonds within molecules, but in water they are strong enough to hold together nearby molecules.
Hydrogen Bonding in Water Molecules. Hydrogen bonds form between nearby water molecules. How do you think this might affect water’s properties?
Properties of Water
Hydrogen bonds between water molecules explain some of water’s properties. For example, hydrogen bonds explain why water molecules tend to stick together. Did you ever watch water drip from a leaky faucet or from a melting icicle? If you did, then you know that water always falls in drops rather than as separate molecules. The dew drops in Figure below are another example of water molecules sticking together.
Droplets of Dew. Drops of dew cling to a spider web in this picture. Can you think of other examples of water forming drops? (Hint: What happens when rain falls on a newly waxed car?)
Hydrogen bonds cause water to have a relatively high boiling point of 100°C (212°F). Because of its high boiling point, most water on Earth is in a liquid state rather than in a gaseous state. Water in its liquid state is needed by all living things. Hydrogen bonds also cause water to expand when it freezes. This, in turn, causes ice to have a lower density (mass/volume) than liquid water. The lower density of ice means that it floats on water. For example, in cold climates, ice floats on top of the water in lakes. This allows lake animals such as fish to survive the winter by staying in the water under the ice.
Acids and Bases
Water is the main ingredient of many solutions. A solution is a mixture of two or more substances that has the same composition throughout. Some solutions are acids and some are bases. To understand acids and bases, you need to know more about pure water. In pure water (such as distilled water), a tiny fraction of water molecules naturally breaks down to form ions. An ion is an electrically charged atom or molecule. The breakdown of water is represented by the chemical equation
2 H2O → H3O+ + OH-
The products of this reaction are a hydronium ion (H3O+) and a hydroxide ion (OH-). The hydroxide ion, which has a negative charge, forms when a water molecule gives up a positively charged hydrogen ion (H+). The hydronium ion, which has positive charge, forms when another water molecule accepts the hydrogen ion.
Acidity and pH
The concentration of hydronium ions in a solution is known as acidity. In pure water, the concentration of hydronium ions is very low; only about 1 in 10 million water molecules naturally breaks down to form a hydronium ion. As a result, pure water is essentially neutral. Acidity is measured on a scale called pH, as shown in Figure below. Pure water has a pH of 7, so the point of neutrality on the pH scale is 7.
pH Scale. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14, with 7 being the point of neutrality. What is the pH of lemon juice? Of milk?
If a solution has a higher concentration of hydronium ions than pure water, it has a pH lower than 7. A solution with a pH lower than 7 is called an acid. As the hydronium ion concentration increases, the pH value decreases. Therefore, the more acidic a solution is, the lower its pH value is. Did you ever taste vinegar? Like other acids, it tastes sour. Stronger acids can be harmful to organisms. For example, stomach acid would eat through the stomach if it were not lined with a layer of mucus. Strong acids can also damage materials, even hard materials such as glass.
If a solution has a lower concentration of hydronium ions than pure water, it has a pH higher than 7. A solution with a pH higher than 7 is called a base. Bases, such as baking soda, have a bitter taste. Like strong acids, strong bases can harm organisms and damage materials. For example, lye can burn the skin, and bleach can remove the color from clothing.
Acids and Bases in Organisms
Acids and bases are important in living things because most enzymes can do their job only at a certain level of acidity. Cells secrete acids and bases to maintain the proper pH for enzymes to work. For example, every time you digest food, acids and bases are at work in your digestive system. Consider the enzyme pepsin, which helps break down proteins in the stomach. Pepsin needs an acidic environment to do its job, and the stomach secretes a strong acid that allows pepsin to work. However, when stomach contents enter the small intestine, the acid must be neutralized. This is because enzymes in the small intestine need a basic environment in order to work. An organ called the pancreas secretes a strong base into the small intestine, and this base neutralizes the acid.
Water and Life
The human body is about 70% water (not counting the water in body fat, which varies from person to person). The body needs all this water to function normally. Just why is so much water required by human beings and other organisms? Water can dissolve many substances that organisms need, and it is necessary for many biochemical reactions. The examples below are among the most important biochemical processes that occur in living things, but they are just two of many ways that water is involved in biochemical reactions.
- Photosynthesis—In this process, cells use the energy in sunlight to change carbon dioxide and water to glucose and oxygen. The reactions of photosynthesis can be represented by the chemical equation
6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy → C6H12O6 + 6O2
- Cellular respiration—In this process, cells break down glucose in the presence of oxygen and release carbon dioxide, water, and energy. The reactions of cellular respiration can be represented by the chemical equation
C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy
Water is involved in many other biochemical reactions. As a result, just about all life processes depend on water. Clearly, life as we know it could not exist without water.
- Most of Earth’s water is salt water in the oceans. Less than 3% is freshwater.
- Water molecules are polar, so they form hydrogen bonds. This gives water unique properties, such as a relatively high boiling point.
- The extremely low hydronium ion concentration of pure water gives pure water a neutral pH of 7. Acids have a pH lower than 7, and bases have a pH higher than 7.
- Water is involved in most biochemical reactions. Therefore, water is essential to life.
Lesson Review Questions
1. Where is most of Earth’s water found?
2. What is polarity? Describe the polarity of water.
3. What is the pH of a neutral solution?
4. Describe an example of an acid or a base that is involved in human digestion.
5. Assume that you test an unknown solution and find that it has a pH of 7.2. What type of solution is it? How do you know?
6. How could you demonstrate to a child that solid water is less dense than liquid water?
7. Explain how water’s polarity is related to its boiling point.
8. Explain why metabolism in organisms depends on water.
Points to Consider
Most biochemical reactions take place within cells. Cells are the microscopic building blocks of organisms.
- What do you think you would see if you could look inside the cell of an organism? What structures do you think you might observe?
- What biochemical processes might be occurring?
Opening image courtesy of David Iberri under the Creative Commons license CC-BY-SA 3.0.
For Table above, from top to bottom: