7.6: Special Cases of Quadratic Factorization
A box is to be designed for packaging with a side length represented by the quadratic \begin{align*}9b^2  64\end{align*}
Watch This
Khan Academy Factoring the Sum and Difference of Squares
Guidance
When factoring quadratics, there are special cases that can be factored more quickly. There are two special quadratics that you should learn to recognize:
Special Case 1 (Perfect Square Trinomial): \begin{align*}x^2 \pm 2xy + y^2=(x\pm y)^2\end{align*}
 Example: \begin{align*} x^2 + 10x +25=(x+5)^2\end{align*}
x2+10x+25=(x+5)2  Example: \begin{align*} 4x^2 32x + 64=(2x8)^2\end{align*}
4x2−32x+64=(2x−8)2
Special Case 2 (Difference of Perfect Squares): \begin{align*}x^2  y^2=(x+y)(xy)\end{align*}
 Example: \begin{align*}25x^2  100=(5x+10)(5x10)\end{align*}
25x2−100=(5x+10)(5x−10)  Example: \begin{align*}4x^225=(2x5)(2x+5)\end{align*}
4x2−25=(2x−5)(2x+5)
Keep in mind that you can always use the box method to do the factoring if you don't notice the problem as a special case.
Example A
Factor \begin{align*}2x^2+28x+98\end{align*}
Solution: First, notice that there is a common factor of 2. Factor out the common factor:
\begin{align*}2x^2+28x+98=2(x^2+14x+49)\end{align*}
Next, notice that the first and last terms are both perfect squares (\begin{align*}x^2=x\cdot x\end{align*}
\begin{align*}x^2+14x+49=(x+7)^2\end{align*}
Therefore, the complete factorization is \begin{align*}2x^2+28x+98=2(x+7)^2\end{align*}
Example B
Factor \begin{align*}8a^224a+18\end{align*}
Solution: First, notice that there is a common factor of 2. Factor out the common factor:
\begin{align*}8a^224a+18=2(4a^212a+9)\end{align*}
Next, notice that the first and last terms are both perfect squares and the middle term is 2 times the product of the roots of the other terms (\begin{align*}12a=2\cdot 2a\cdot 3\end{align*}
\begin{align*}4a^212a+9=(2a3)^2\end{align*}
Therefore, the complete factorization is \begin{align*}8a^224a+18=2(2a3)^2\end{align*}
Example C
Factor \begin{align*}x^216\end{align*}
Solution: Notice that there are no common factors. The typical middle term of the quadratic is missing and each of the terms present are perfect squares and being subtracted. This means \begin{align*}x^216\end{align*}
\begin{align*}x^216=(x4)(x+4)\end{align*}
Note that it would also be correct to say \begin{align*}x^216=(x+4)(x4)\end{align*}
Concept Problem Revisited
A box is to be designed for packaging with a side length represented by the quadratic \begin{align*}9b^2  64\end{align*}
First: factor the quadratic to find the value for \begin{align*}b\end{align*}
\begin{align*}9b^264\end{align*}
This is a difference of perfect squares (Special Case 2). Use that pattern:
\begin{align*}9b^264=(3b8)(3b+8)\end{align*}
To finish this problem we need to solve a quadratic equation. This idea is explored in further detail in another concept.
\begin{align*}& 9b^264=(3b+8)(3b8)\\
& \qquad \qquad \quad \swarrow \qquad \qquad \searrow\\
& \ \quad 3b+8=0 \qquad \qquad 3b8=0\\
& \ \qquad \ \ 3b=8 \qquad \qquad \quad 3b=8\\
& \ \qquad \quad b=\frac{8}{3} \qquad \qquad \quad \ b=\frac{8}{3}\end{align*}
The most economical box is a cube. Therefore the dimensions are \begin{align*}\frac{8}{3} \times \frac{8}{3} \times \frac{8}{3}\end{align*}
Vocabulary
 Difference of Perfect Squares
 The difference of perfect squares is a special case of a quadratic expression where there is no middle term and the two terms present are both perfect squares. The general equation for the difference of two squares is:
\begin{align*}x^2y^2=(x+y)(xy)\end{align*}
 Perfect Square Trinomial
 The perfect square trinomials are the result of a binomial being multiplied by itself. The two variations of the perfect square trinomial are:

\begin{align*}(x+y)^2=x^2+2xy+y^2\end{align*}
(x+y)2=x2+2xy+y2 
\begin{align*}(xy)^2=x^22xy+y^2\end{align*}
(x−y)2=x2−2xy+y2
Guided Practice
1. Factor completely \begin{align*}s^218s+81\end{align*}
2. Factor completely \begin{align*}5098x^2\end{align*}
3. Factor completely \begin{align*}4x^2+48x+144\end{align*}
Answers:
1. This is Special Case 1. \begin{align*}s^218s+81=(s9)^2\end{align*}
2. First factor out the common factor of 2. Then, it is Special Case 2. \begin{align*}5098x^2=2(57x)(5+7x)\end{align*}
3. First factor out the common factor of 4. Then, it is Special Case 1. \begin{align*}4x^2+48x+144=4(x+6)^2\end{align*}
Practice
Factor each of the following:

\begin{align*}s^2+18s+81\end{align*}
s2+18s+81 
\begin{align*}x^2+12x+36\end{align*}
x2+12x+36 
\begin{align*}y^214y+49\end{align*}
y2−14y+49 
\begin{align*}4a^2+20a+25\end{align*}
4a2+20a+25  \begin{align*}9s^248s+64\end{align*}
 \begin{align*}s^281\end{align*}
 \begin{align*}x^249\end{align*}
 \begin{align*}4t^225\end{align*}
 \begin{align*}25w^236\end{align*}
 \begin{align*}6481a^2\end{align*}
 \begin{align*}y^222y+121\end{align*}
 \begin{align*}16t^249\end{align*}
 \begin{align*}9a^2+30a+25\end{align*}
 \begin{align*}10025b^2\end{align*}
 \begin{align*}4s^228s+49\end{align*}
Difference of Squares
A difference of squares is a quadratic equation in the form .Perfect Square Trinomial
A perfect square trinomial is a quadratic expression of the form (which can be rewritten as ) or (which can be rewritten as ).Quadratic form
A polynomial in quadratic form looks like a trinomial or binomial and can be factored like a quadratic expression.Image Attributions
Here you'll learn to recognize two special kinds of quadratics and how to factor them quickly.