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12.4: Excluded Values for Rational Expressions

Difficulty Level: Basic Created by: CK-12
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Did you know that Pluto is no longer considered a planet? Even so, we can still calculate the distance between it and the Sun. All we would have to know is the force of attraction between Pluto and the Sun, the masses of the two objects, and the value of the gravitation constant. In this Concept, you'll learn how to simplify rational expressions, including real-life expressions such as the one we would encounter here.


You have gained experience working with rational functions so far. In this Concept, you will continue simplifying rational expressions by factoring.

To simplify a rational expression means to reduce the fraction into its lowest terms.

To do this, you will need to remember a property about multiplication.

For all real values a and b, and b0,abb=a.

Example A

Simplify x22x+18x8.

Solution: Factor both pieces of the rational expression and reduce.


Finding Excluded Values of Rational Expressions

As stated in a previous Concept, excluded values are also called points of discontinuity. These are the values that make the denominator equal to zero and are not part of the domain.

Example B

Find the excluded values of 2x+1x2x6.

Solution: Factor the denominator of the rational expression.


Find the value that makes each factor equal zero.


These are excluded values of the domain of the rational expression.

Real-Life Rational Expressions

The gravitational force between two objects in given by the formula F=G(m1m2)(d2). The gravitation constant is given by G=6.67×1011(Nm2/kg2). The force of attraction between the Earth and the Moon is F=2.0×1020 N (with masses of m1=5.97×1024 kg for the Earth and m2=7.36×1022 kg for the Moon).

Example C

What is the distance between the Earth and the Moon?


Let's start with the Law of Gravitation formula.Now plug in the known values.Multiply the masses together.Cancel the kg2 units.Multiply the numbers in the numerator.Multiply both sides by d2.Cancel common factors.Simplify.Divide both sides by 2.0×1020N.Simplify.Take the square root of both sides.F=Gm1m2d22.0×1020N=6.67×1011Nm2kg2.(5.97×1024kg)(7.36×1022kg)d22.0×1020N=6.67×1011Nm2kg2.4.39×1047kg2d22.0×1020N=6.67×1011Nm2kg24.39×1047kg2d22.0×1020N2.93×1037d2Nm22.0×1020Nd2=2.93×1037d2d2Nm22.0×1020Nd2=2.93×1037d2d2Nm22.0×1020Nd2=2.93×1037Nm2d2=2.93×10372.0×1020Nm2Nd2=1.465×1017m2d=3.84×108m

Video Review


Guided Practice

Find the excluded values by simplifying 4x22x2+x1.


Both the numerator and denominator can be factored using methods learned in previous Concepts.


The expression (2x1) appears in both the numerator and denominator and can be canceled. The expression becomes:


Since x+1=0x=1, then x=1 is an excluded value.

Explore More

Sample explanations for some of the practice exercises below are available by viewing the following video. Note that there is not always a match between the number of the practice exercise in the video and the number of the practice exercise listed in the following exercise set. However, the practice exercise is the same in both. CK-12 Basic Algebra: Simplifying Rational Expressions (15:22)

Reduce each fraction to lowest terms.

  1. 42x8
  2. x2+2xx
  3. 9x+312x+4
  4. 6x2+2x4x
  5. x2x24x+4
  6. x295x+15
  7. x2+6x+8x2+4x
  8. 2x2+10xx2+10x+25
  9. x2+6x+5x2x2
  10. x216x2+2x8
  11. 3x2+3x182x2+5x3
  12. x3+x220x6x2+6x120

Find the excluded values for each rational expression.

  1. 2x
  2. 4x+2
  3. 2x1(x1)2
  4. 3x+1x24
  5. x2x2+9
  6. 2x2+3x1x23x28
  7. 5x34x2+3x
  8. 9x3+11x2+30x
  9. 4x1x2+3x5
  10. 5x+113x22x4
  11. x212x3+x+3
  12. 12x2+6x+1
  13. In an electrical circuit with resistors placed in parallel, the reciprocal of the total resistance is equal to the sum of the reciprocals of each resistance: 1Rc=1R1+1R2. If R1=25Ω and the total resistance is Rc=10Ω, what is the resistance R2?
  14. Suppose that two objects attract each other with a gravitational force of 20 Newtons. If the distance between the two objects is doubled, what is the new force of attraction between the two objects?
  15. Suppose that two objects attract each other with a gravitational force of 36 Newtons. If the mass of both objects was doubled, and if the distance between the objects was doubled, then what would be the new force of attraction between the two objects?
  16. A sphere with radius r has a volume of 43πr3 and a surface area of 4πr2. Find the ratio of the surface area to the volume of the sphere.
  17. The side of a cube is increased by a factor of two. Find the ratio of the old volume to the new volume.
  18. The radius of a sphere is decreased by four units. Find the ratio of the old volume to the new volume.

Mixed Review

  1. Name 4p6+7p39.
  2. Simplify (4b2+b+7b3)+(5b26b4+b3). Write the answer in standard form.
  3. State the Zero Product Property.
  4. Why can’t the Zero Product Property be used in this situation: (5x+1)(x4)=2?
  5. Shelly earns $4.85 an hour plus $15 in tips. Graph her possible total earnings for one day of work.
  6. Multiply and simplify: (4x2+8x1)(7x2+6x+8).
  7. A rectangle’s perimeter is 65 yards. The length is 7 more yards than its width.

Answers for Explore More Problems

To view the Explore More answers, open this PDF file and look for section 12.4. 


Oblique Asymptote

Oblique Asymptote

An oblique asymptote is a diagonal line marking a specific range of values toward which the graph of a function may approach, but generally never reach. An oblique asymptote exists when the numerator of the function is exactly one degree greater than the denominator. An oblique asymptote may be found through long division.
Rational Expression

Rational Expression

A rational expression is a fraction with polynomials in the numerator and the denominator.
Vertical Asymptote

Vertical Asymptote

A vertical asymptote is a vertical line marking a specific value toward which the graph of a function may approach, but will never reach.

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Difficulty Level:



8 , 9

Date Created:

Feb 24, 2012

Last Modified:

Aug 20, 2015
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