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# 12.2: Vertebrate Reproduction

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Practice Vertebrate Reproduction
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Does the embryo develop in the mother or in an egg?

Is the egg within the mother or not? Vertebrate reproduction occurs by one of three methods. These bird eggs demonstrate one of three types of vertebrate reproduction.

### Vertebrate Reproduction

Vertebrates reproduce sexually, and almost all of them have separate male and female sexes. Generally, aquatic species have external fertilization, whereas terrestrial species have internal fertilization. Can you think of a reason why aquatic and terrestrial vertebrates differ in this way? Vertebrates have one of the following three reproductive strategies: ovipary, ovovivipary, or vivipary.

• Ovipary refers to the development of an embryo within an egg outside the mother’s body. This occurs in most amphibians and reptiles and in all birds.
• Ovovivipary refers to the development of an embryo inside an egg within the mother’s body until it hatches. The mother provides no nourishment to the developing embryo inside the egg. This occurs in some species of fish and reptiles.
• Vivipary refers to the development and nourishment of an embryo within the mother’s body. Birth may be followed by a period of parental care of the offspring. This reproductive strategy occurs in almost all mammals.

What type of reproduction occurs in kangaroos?

### Summary

• Vertebrates reproduce sexually, and almost all have separate male and female sexes.
• Aquatic species generally have external fertilization, whereas terrestrial species usually have internal fertilization.
• Vertebrates have one of three reproductive strategies, known as ovipary, ovovivipary, or vivipary.

### Practice

Use this resource to answer the questions that follow.

• http://www.hippocampus.org/Biology $\rightarrow$ Biology for AP* $\rightarrow$ Search: Types of Fertilization
1. What types of vertebrates use external fertilization?
2. Why do animals that have external fertilization produce many eggs?
3. What types of vertebrates use internal fertilization?
4. Compare advantages of internal and external fertilization.

### Review

1. Define ovipary, ovovivipary, and vivipary. Which vertebrates use each type of reproductive strategy?

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Feb 24, 2012

## Last Modified:

Aug 25, 2014
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