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13.49: Inflammatory Response and Leukocytes

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12
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What happens when an enemy gets past the first line of defense?

For this running back to make it past the first line of defense, there usually has to be a hole or break in the line. He then runs into the secondary, or the second line of defense. Whenever the skin is broken, it is possible for pathogens to easily enter your body. They get past the first line of defense, and run into the second line of defense.

The Second Line of Defense

If you have a cut on your hand, the break in the skin provides a way for pathogens to enter your body. Assume bacteria enter through the cut and infect the wound. These bacteria would then encounter the body’s second line of defense.

Inflammatory Response

The cut on your hand may become red, warm, and swollen. These are signs of an inflammatory response. This is the first reaction of the body to tissue damage or infection. As explained in Figure below, the response is triggered by chemicals called cytokines and histamines, which are released when tissue is injured or infected. The chemicals communicate with other cells and coordinate the inflammatory response. You can see an animation of the inflammatory response at this link: http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animations/content/inflammatory.html.

This drawing shows what happens during the inflammatory response. Why are changes in capillaries important for this response?

The inflammatory response is discussed at http://www.youtube.com/user/khanacademy#p/c/7A9646BC5110CF64/56/FXSuEIMrPQk.


The chemicals that trigger an inflammatory response attract leukocytes to the site of injury or infection. Leukocytes are white blood cells. Their role is to fight infections and get rid of debris. Leukocytes may respond with either a nonspecific or a specific defense.

  • A nonspecific defense is the same no matter what type of pathogen is involved. An example of a nonspecific defense is phagocytosis. This is the process in which leukocytes engulf and break down pathogens and debris. It is illustrated in Figure below.
  • A specific defense is tailored to a particular pathogen. Leukocytes involved in this type of defense are described in other concepts.

In this image, leukocytes (white) are attacking pathogens (star-shaped).

A summary of the nonspecific defenses can be viewed at http://www.youtube.com/user/khanacademy#p/c/7A9646BC5110CF64/49/O1N2rENXq_Y(16:20).


  • The second line of defense attacks pathogens that manage to enter the body.
  • The second line of defense includes the inflammatory response and phagocytosis by nonspecific leukocytes.


Use this resource to answer the questions that follow.

  • http://www.hippocampus.org/Biology Biology for AP* Search: The Nonspecific Immune Response
  1. What is the immune response?
  2. What is meant by a "nonspecific" immune response?
  3. Describe the phagocytosis process. Include specific types of white blood cells.
  4. What is a natural killer cell?
  5. What is the complement system?
  6. Describe the inflammatory response.
  7. Why may the body develop a fever?


1. What is a nonspecific defense?

2. What is the body’s second life of defense? When does it take effect?

3. Identify the roles of nonspecific leukocytes in the body’s second line of defense.

4. State how phagocytosis helps defend the body from pathogens.

5. Jera cut her finger. The next day, the skin around the cut became red and warm. Why are these signs of infection?

6. Explain how the inflammatory response helps fight an infection.

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histamine An organic compound involved in local immune responses; may act as as a neurotransmitter; triggers the inflammatory response.
inflammatory response Nonspecific response the body first makes to tissue damage or infection.
leukocyte White blood cell produced by bone marrow to fight infections.
nonspecific defense A defense not tailored to any particular pathogen; the same response no matter what type of pathogen is involved.
phagocytosis Process in which leukocytes engulf and break down pathogens and debris.
specific defense A defense tailored to a particular pathogen.

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Difficulty Level:
At Grade
Date Created:
Feb 24, 2012
Last Modified:
Aug 28, 2016
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