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26.3: C

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Calvin cycle
second stage of photosynthesis in which carbon atoms from carbon dioxide are combined, using the energy in ATP and NADPH, to make glucose
Cambrian explosion
spectacular burst of new life that occurred at the start of the Paleozoic Era
cancer
disease that occurs when the cell cycle is no longer regulated and cells divide out of control
candidiasis
infection of the mouth or of the vagina in females that is caused by the yeast Candida
capillary
smallest type of blood vessel that connects very small arteries and veins
capsid
protein coat that surrounds the DNA or RNA of a virus particle
carbohydrate
organic compound such as sugar or starch
carbon cycle
interconnected pathways through which carbon is recycled through the biotic and abiotic components of the biosphere
carcinogen
anything that can cause cancer
cardiac muscle
involuntary, striated muscle found only in the walls of the heart
cardiovascular disease (CVD)
any disease that affects the heart or blood vessels
carnivore
consumer that eats animals
carrying capacity (K)
largest population size that can be supported in an area without harming the environment
cartilage
dense connective tissue that provides a smooth surface for the movement of bones at joints
catabolic reaction
exothermic reaction in organisms
cell
basic unit of structure and function of living things
cell body
central part of a neuron that contains the nucleus and other cell organelles
cell cycle
repeating series of events that a cell goes through during its life, including growth, DNA, synthesis, and cell division
cell division
process in which a parent cell divides to form two daughter cells
cell-mediated immune response
type of immune response in which T cells destroy cells that are infected with viruses
cell theory
theory that all living things are made up of cells, all life functions occur within cells, and all cells come from already existing cells
cellular respiration
process in which cells break down glucose and make ATP for energy
cell wall
rigid layer that surrounds the plasma membrane of a plant cell and helps support and protect the cell
Cenozoic Era
age of mammals that lasted from 65 million years ago to the present
central dogma of molecule biology
doctrine that genetic instructions in DNA are copied by RNA, which carries them to a ribosome where they are used to synthesize a protein (DNA → RNA → protein)
central nervous system (CNS)
one of two main divisions of the nervous system that includes the brain and spinal cord
central vacuole
large saclike organelle in plant cells that stores substances such as water and helps keep plant tissues rigid
centromere
region of sister chromatids where they are joined together
cephalization
concentration of nerve tissue in one end of an animal, forming a head region
cerebellum
part of the brain below the cerebrum that coordinates body movements
cerebrum
largest part of the brain that controls conscious functions such as reasoning and sight
Chargaff’s rules
observations by Erwin Chargaff that concentrations of the four nucleotide bases differ among species; and that, within a species, the concentrations of adenine and thymine are always about the same and the concentrations of cytosine and guanine are always about the same
chemical bond
force that holds molecules together
chemical digestion
chemical breakdown of large, complex food molecules into smaller, simpler nutrient molecules that can be absorbed by the blood
chemical reaction
process that changes some chemical substances into others
chemoautotroph
producer that uses energy from chemical compounds to make food by chemosynthesis
chemosynthesis
process of using the energy in chemical compounds to make food
chitin
tough carbohydrate that makes up the cell walls of fungi and the exoskeletons of insects and other arthropods
chlamydia
sexually transmitted bacterial infection that is the most common STI in the United States
chlorophyll
green pigment in a chloroplast that absorbs sunlight in the light reactions of photosynthesis
chloroplast
organelle in the cells of plants and algae where photosynthesis takes place
chordates
consists of all animals with a notochord, dorsal hollow nerve cord, post-anal tail, and pharyngeal slits during at least some stage of their life
chromatid
one of two identical copies of a chromosome that are joined together at a centromere before a cell divides
chromatin
grainy material that DNA forms when it is not coiled into chromosomes
chromosomal alteration
mutation that changes chromosome structure
chromosome
coiled structure made of DNA and proteins containing sister chromatids that is the form in which the genetic material of a cell goes through cell division
cilia (singular, cilium)
short, hairlike projections, similar to flagella, that allow some cells to move
ciliate
type of protozoa, such as Paramecium, that moves with cilia
circadian rhythm
regular change in biology or behavior that occurs in a 24-hour cycle
circulatory system
organ system consisting of the heart, blood vessels, and blood that transports materials around the body
clade
group of related organisms that includes an ancestor and all of its descendants
climate
average weather in an area over a long period of time
climax community
final stable stage of ecological succession that may be reached in an undisturbed community
cloaca
body cavity with a single opening in amphibians, reptiles, and monotreme mammals that collects and excretes wastes from the digestive and excretory systems and gametes from the reproductive system
Cnidaria
invertebrate phylum that includes animals such as jellyfish and corals that are characterized by radial symmetry, tissues, and a stinger called a nematocyst
codominance
relationship between two alleles for the same gene in which both alleles are expressed equally in the phenotype of the heterozygote
codon
group of three nitrogen bases in nucleic acids that makes up a code “word” of the genetic code and stands for an amino acid, start, or stop
coelom
fluid-filled body cavity
coevolution
process in which two interacting species evolve together, with each species influencing the other’s evolution
commensalism
symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits while the other species is not affected
community
all of the populations of different species that live in the same area
compact bone
dense outer layer of bone that is very hard and strong
comparative anatomy
study of the similarities and differences in the structures of different species
comparative embryology
study of the similarities and differences in the embryos of different species
competition
relationship between living things that depend on the same resources in the same place and at the same time
competitive exclusion principle
principle of ecology stating that two different species cannot occupy the same niche in the same place for very long
complementary base pair
pair of nucleotide bases that bond together—either adenine and thymine (or uracil) or cytosine and guanine
complete digestive system
digestive system consisting of a digestive tract and two body openings (mouth and anus)
compound
substance with a unique, fixed composition that consists of two or more elements
condensation
process in which water vapor changes to tiny droplets of liquid water
cone
structure consisting of scales that bear naked seeds in the type of seed plants called gymnosperms
connective tissue
tissue made up of cells that form the body’s structure, such as bone and cartilage
consumer
organism that consumes other organisms for food
cooperation
type of animal behavior in which social animals live and work together for the good of the group
courtship
animal behavior that is intended to attract a mate
cranium
part of a vertebrate endoskeleton that encloses and protects the brain; also called the skull
crop
sac-like structure in the digestive system of birds that stores and moistens food before it is digested
crossing-over
exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes when they are closely paired during meiosis I
cuticle
waxy, waterproof substance produced by epidermal cells of leaves, shoots, and other above-ground parts of plants to prevent damage and loss of water by evaporation
cyanobacteria
Gram-positive blue-green photosynthetic bacteria of the type that added oxygen to Earth’s early atmosphere and evolved into chloroplasts of eukaryotic cells
cytokinesis
splitting of the cytoplasm to form daughter cells when a cell divides
cytoplasm
all of the material inside the plasma membrane of a cell (excluding organelles)
cytoskeleton
structure of filaments and tubules in the cytoplasm that provides a cell with an internal framework

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Feb 23, 2012

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Aug 22, 2014
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