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26.7: G

Created by: CK-12
Galápagos Islands
group of 16 small volcanic islands in the Pacific Ocean 966 kilometers (600 miles) off the west coast of South America, where Darwin made some of his most important observations during his voyage on the HMS Beagle
gall bladder
sac-like organ that stores bile from the liver and secretes it into the duodenum of the small intestine
gamete
reproductive cell produced during meiosis that has the haploid number of chromosomes
gametogenesis
development of haploid cells into gametes such as sperm and egg
gametophyte
haploid generation in the life cycle of a plant that results from asexual reproduction with spores and that produces gametes for sexual reproduction
gastrointestinal (GI) tract
organs of the digestive system through which food passes during digestion, including the mouth, esophagus, stomach, and small and large intestines
gene
unit of DNA on a chromosome that is encoded with the instructions for a single protein
gene cloning
process of isolating and making copies of a gene
gene expression
use of a gene to make a protein
gene flow
change in allele frequencies that occurs when individuals move into or out of a population
gene pool
all the genes of all the members of a population
generalist
organism that can consume many different types of food
gene theory
theory that the characteristics of living things are controlled by genes that are passed from parents to offspring
gene therapy
way to cure genetic disorders by inserting normal genes into cells with mutant genes
genetic code
universal code of three-base codons that encodes the genetic instructions for the amino acid sequence of proteins
genetic disorder
disease caused by a mutation in one or a few genes
genetic drift
a random change in allele frequencies that occurs in a small population
genetic engineering
using biotechnology to change the genetic makeup of an organism
genetics
the science of heredity
genetic trait
characteristic that is encoded in DNA
genetic transfer
method of increasing genetic variation in prokaryotes that involves cells “grabbing” stray pieces of DNA from their environment or exchanging DNA directly with other cells
genital herpes
sexually transmitted infection caused by a herpes virus that is characterized by periodic outbreaks of blisters on the genitals
genital warts
small, rough growths on the genitals caused by a sexually transmitted infection with human papillomavirus (HPV)
genotype
alleles an individual inherits at a particular genetic locus
genus
taxon above the species in the Linnaean classification system; group of closely related species
geologic time scale
time line of Earth based on major events in geology, climate, and the evolution of life
germination
early growth and development of a plant embryo in a seed
germline mutation
mutation that occur in gametes
giardiasis
disease caused by Giardia protozoa that spreads through contaminated food or water
gills
organs in aquatic organisms composed of thin filaments that absorb oxygen from water
gizzard
food-grinding organ in the digestive system of birds and some other animals that may contain swallowed stones
global warming
recent rise in Earth’s average surface temperature generally attributed to an increased greenhouse effect
glucose
simple carbohydrate with the chemical formula C6H12O6 that is the nearly universal food for life
glycolysis
first stage of cellular respiration in which glucose is split, in the absence of oxygen, to form two molecules of pyruvate (pyruvic acid) and two (net) molecules of ATP
Golgi apparatus
organelle in eukaryotic cells that processes proteins and prepares them for use both inside and outside the cell
gonads
glands that secrete sex hormones and produce gametes; testes in males and ovaries in females
gonorrhea
common sexually transmitted infection that is caused by bacteria
gradualism
model of the timing of evolution in which evolutionary change occurs at a slow and steady pace
Gram-negative bacteria
type of bacteria that stain red with Gram stain and have a thin cell wall with an outer membrane
Gram-positive bacteria
type of bacteria that stain purple with Gram stain and have a thick cell wall without an outer membrane
grana
within the chloroplast, consists of sac-like membranes, known as thylakoid membranes
greenhouse effect
natural feature of Earth’s atmosphere that occurs when gases in the atmosphere radiate the sun’s heat back down to Earth’s surface, making Earth’s temperature far warmer than it otherwise would be
ground tissue
type of plant tissue making up most of the interior of the roots and stems of plants that carries out basic metabolic functions and provides support and storage
groundwater
water that exists in the ground either in the soil or in rock layers below the surface
growing season
period of time each year when it is warm enough and wet enough for plants to grow
gymnosperm
type of seed plant that produces bare seeds in cones

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Feb 23, 2012

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Dec 12, 2014
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CK.SCI.ENG.SE.1.Biology.26.7

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