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paper chromatography
a method of chromatography that uses paper as the medium upon which the mixture to be separated is applied
partial pressure
the pressure that one component of a mixture of gases would exert if it were alone in a container
parts per million (ppm)
the mass of solute per mass of solution multiplied by 1 million
pascal
the SI unit of pressure, equivalent to 1 \ \mathrm{Newtons/meter}^2
Pauli exclusion principle
no two subatomic particles can be in states characterized by the same set of quantum numbers
penetration power
ability of radiation to pass through matter
percent composition
the proportion of an element present in a compound, found by dividing the mass of the element by the mass of the whole compound and multiplying by 100%
percent error
a measurement of how far an experimental value is from the accepted value
percent yield
the ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield expressed as a percentage
period
a horizontal row in the periodic table
periodic law
states that the properties of the elements recur periodically as their atomic numbers increase
periodic table
a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements according to atomic number
pH
the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration
phase
any of the forms or states (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) in which matter can exist
phlogiston
the “fire substance” from a former theory of combustion
phospholipid
a combination of fatty acids, glycerol and a phosphate group joined together
photoelectric effect
a phenomenon in which electrons are emitted from the surface of a material after the absorption of energy
photon
a particle of light
physical change
change that does not alter the identity of a substance
physical property
property that can be observed without changing the identity of the substance
pi bond
a covalent bond in which p orbitals share an electron pair occupying the space above and below the line joining the atoms
pOH
the negative logarithm of the hydroxide ion concentration
polar covalent bonds
covalent bonds in which the shared bonding electrons are not shared equally, resulting in a dipole on the molecule
polyatomic ion
a group of covalently bound atoms that carry an overall charge, which interacts with other molecules as a single unit
polymer
a large organic molecule that contains hundreds or even thousands of atoms
polypeptide
many amino acids combined together
potential energy
stored energy
potential energy diagram
potential energy diagram in the study of kinetics shows how the potential energy changes during reactions from reactants to products
precipitate
the solid that is formed as a result of a precipitation reaction
precipitation reaction
a reaction in which soluble ions in separate solutions are mixed together to form an insoluble compound that settles out of the solution
precision
reflects how close the values in a set of measurements are to each other
principal quantum number
a number that indicates the main energy level of an electron in an atom
problem
the purpose for a scientific investigation
products
materials present at the end of a reaction
protein
polymer that is an amino acid
proton
a positively charged subatomic particle

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CK.SCI.ENG.SE.2.Chemistry-Glossary.26.16

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