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# 26.19: S

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12
salt bridge
a U-shaped tube containing an electrolyte that connects two half-cells in an electrochemical cell
saturated compound
an organic molecule containing only single bonds
saturated solution
a solution in which a given amount of solvent has dissolved the absolute maximum amount solute at that temperature
scientific law
a statement that summarizes the results of many observations and experiments
scientific method
a method of investigation involving experimentation and observation to acquire new knowledge, solve problems, and answer questions
scientific notation
a shorthand method of writing very large and very small numbers by expressing them as a product of a decimal number between 1 and 10 multiplied by an integral power of 10
second
the SI unit for time
shielding effect
the effect where the inner electrons help “shield” the outer electrons and the nucleus from each other
sigma bond
a covalent bond in which the electron pair is shared in an area centered on a line running between the atoms
significant figure
includes all of the digits that can be known with certainty in a measurement plus an estimated last digit
single replacement reaction
a reaction in which an element reacts with a compound to form products
slope
the ratio of the change in one variable with respect to the other variable
solubility
the maximum amount of a substance that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature
solubility product constant, Ksp\begin{align*} K_{sp}\end{align*}
equilibrium constant for a slightly soluble salt
soluble
able to dissolve
solute
the substance in a solution present in the least amount
solution
a homogeneous mixture of substances
solvent
the substance in a solution present in the greatest amount
specific heat
the amount of energy necessary to raise 1.00 gram of a substance by 1.00C\begin{align*}1.00^\circ\text{C}\end{align*}
spectator ions
the ions in the total ionic equation that appear in the same form on both sides of the equation indicating they do not participate in the overall reaction
spin quantum number
a number that indicates the orientation of the angular momentum of an electron in an atom
spontaneous event (or reaction)
a change that occurs without outside inference
standard solution
a solution whose concentration is known exactly and is used to find the exact concentration of the titrant
steroid
compound where four carbon rings are bounded together with branches and functional groups bounded to the rings
stoichiometry
the calculation of quantitative relationships of the reactants and products in a balanced chemical equation
strong acid
acid that undergoes 100% dissociation in water
strong base
base that undergoes 100% dissociation in water
strong nuclear force
the strong interaction that is responsible for binding the protons and neutrons in the atomic nuclei together
structural isomers
molecules with the same formula but different structures
subatomic particles
particles that are smaller than the atom
subscript
part of the chemical formula that indicates the number of atoms of the preceding element
surroundings
everything but the reactants and products in the reaction
suspension
type of mixture in which the particles settle to the bottom of the container and can be separated by filtration
synthetic indicator
an indicator that is synthesized in the laboratory
synthesis reaction
a reaction in which two or more reactants combine to make one product
system
the reactants and products in the reaction

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