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14.1: Introduction to Stoichiometry

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12

Lesson Objectives

The student will:

• explain the meaning of the term “stoichiometry.”
• interpret chemical equations in terms of molecules, formula units, and moles.

Vocabulary

• formula unit
• stoichiometry

Introduction

You have learned that chemical equations provide us with information about the types of particles that react to form products. Chemical equations also provide us with the relative number of particles and moles that react to form products. In this chapter, you will explore the quantitative relationships that exist between the reactants and products in a balanced equation. This is known as stoichiometry.

Stoichiometry involved calculating the quantities of reactants or products in a chemical reaction using the relationships found in the balanced chemical equation. The word stoichiometry actually comes from two Greek words: stoikheion, which means element, and metron, which means measure.

Molecules and Formula Units

Before proceeding, recall the differences between molecules and formula units. A formula unit is used specifically with ionic compounds and refers to the smallest unit in the ionic compound. For example, the formula for potassium chloride, KCl\begin{align*}\text{KCl}\end{align*}. One formula unit of potassium chloride contains one ion of potassium and one chloride ion. Recall from the chapter “Ionic Bonds and Formulas” that ionic compounds are made up of positive and negative ions held together by electrostatic attraction. When we write KCl\begin{align*}\text{KCl}\end{align*}, we are only writing the ratio of K+\begin{align*}\text{K}^+\end{align*} ions to Cl\begin{align*}\text{Cl}^-\end{align*} ions involved in a crystal of potassium chloride, not an actual unit that exists by itself.

KClK++Cl\begin{align*}\text{KCl} \rightarrow \text{K}^+ + \text{Cl}^-\end{align*}

Another example of an ionic compound is copper(II) chloride, CuCl2\begin{align*}\text{CuCl}_2\end{align*}. A formula unit of copper(II) chloride is composed of one ion of copper and two chloride ions. Again, one unit of CuCl2\begin{align*}\text{CuCl}_2\end{align*} does not exist by itself. Instead, CuCl2\begin{align*}\text{CuCl}_2\end{align*} is a crystalline structure that has a ratio of one copper ion to two chloride ions.

CuCl2Cu2++2Cl\begin{align*}\text{CuCl}_2 \rightarrow \text{Cu}^{2+} + 2 \text{Cl}^-\end{align*}

In other words, ionic compounds are not composed of molecules. Therefore, we use the term formula unit to represent one unit of an ionic compound.

Covalent compounds are discrete molecules where the atoms join together by sharing electrons. For example, one molecule of carbon tetrachloride, CCl4\begin{align*}\text{CCl}_4\end{align*}, contains one carbon and four chlorine atoms, not ions, joined together by sharing of electrons. In the figure below, a space-filling model for CCl4\begin{align*}\text{CCl}_4\end{align*} is shown on the left, and the Lewis structure is shown on the right.

We can call this a molecule since there is a singular unit consisting of one carbon atom and four chlorine atoms that can act independently from other units or molecules of CCl4\begin{align*}\text{CCl}_4\end{align*}. Water, H2O\begin{align*}\text{H}_2\text{O}\end{align*}, is another example of a covalently bonded compound that exists as discrete molecules.

Interpreting Chemical Equations

Recall from the chapter “The Mole Concept” that a mole is a quantitative measure equivalent to Avogadro’s number of particles. How does the mole relate to the chemical equation? Consider the following reaction:

N2O3+ H2O2 HNO3\begin{align*}\text{N}_2\text{O}_3 + \ \text{H}_2\text{O} \rightarrow 2 \ \text{HNO}_3\end{align*}

We have learned that the coefficients in a chemical equation tell us the relative amounts of each substance involved in the reaction. One way to describe the ratios involved in the reaction above would be, “One molecule of dinitrogen trioxide, N2O3\begin{align*}\text{N}_2\text{O}_3\end{align*}, plus one molecule of water yields two molecules of nitrous acid, HNO3\begin{align*}\text{HNO}_3\end{align*}.” However, because these are only ratios, this statement would be equally valid using units other than molecules. As a result, we could also say, “One mole of dinitrogen trioxide plus one mole of water yields two moles of nitrous acid.”

We can use moles instead of molecules, because a mole is simply an amount equal to Avogadro’s number, just like a dozen is an amount equal to 12. It is important to not use units that describe properties other than amount. For example, it would not be correct to say that one gram of dinitrogen trioxide plus one gram of water yields two grams of nitrous acid.

Now consider this reaction:

2 CuSO4+4 KI2 CuI+4 K2SO4+I2\begin{align*}2 \ \text{CuSO}_4 + 4 \ \text{KI} \rightarrow 2 \ \text{CuI} + 4 \ \text{K}_2\text{SO}_4 + \text{I}_2\end{align*}

Here, we can say, “Two moles of copper(II) sulfate react with four moles of potassium iodide, yielding two moles of copper(I) iodide, four moles of potassium sulfate, and one mole of molecular iodine.” Although we can refer to molecules of iodine, I2\begin{align*}\text{I}_2\end{align*}, it is generally not correct to refer to molecules of something like KI. Because KI is an ionic substance that exists as crystal lattices instead of discrete molecules, formula unit is used instead.

Example:

Indicate the ratio of compounds involved in the following balanced chemical equations. Describe the ratios in two ways: a) using the number of formula units or molecules and b) using the number of moles present.

1. 2 C2H6+7 O24 CO2+6 H2O\begin{align*}2 \ \text{C}_2\text{H}_6 + 7 \ \text{O}_2 \rightarrow 4 \ \text{CO}_2 + 6 \ \text{H}_2\text{O}\end{align*}
2. KBrO3+6 KI+6 HBr7 KBr+3 I2+3 H2O\begin{align*}\text{KBrO}_3 + 6 \ \text{KI} + 6 \ \text{HBr} \rightarrow 7 \ \text{KBr} + 3 \ \text{I}_2 + 3 \ \text{H}_2\text{O}\end{align*}

Solution:

1. Two molecules of C2H6\begin{align*}\text{C}_2\text{H}_6\end{align*} plus seven molecules of O2\begin{align*}\text{O}_2\end{align*} yields four molecules of CO2\begin{align*}\text{CO}_2\end{align*} plus six molecules of H2O\begin{align*}\text{H}_2\text{O}\end{align*}.
2. Two moles of C2H6\begin{align*}\text{C}_2\text{H}_6\end{align*} plus seven moles of O2\begin{align*}\text{O}_2\end{align*} yields four moles of CO2\begin{align*}\text{CO}_2\end{align*} plus six moles of H2O\begin{align*}\text{H}_2\text{O}\end{align*}.
1. One formula unit of KBrO3\begin{align*}\text{KBrO}_3\end{align*} plus six formula units of KI\begin{align*}\text{KI}\end{align*} plus six molecules of HBr\begin{align*}\text{HBr}\end{align*} yields seven formula units of KBr\begin{align*}\text{KBr}\end{align*} plus three molecules of I2\begin{align*}\text{I}_2\end{align*} and three molecules of H2O\begin{align*}\text{H}_2\text{O}\end{align*}.
2. One mole of KBrO3\begin{align*}\text{KBrO}_3\end{align*} plus six moles of KI\begin{align*}\text{KI}\end{align*} plus six moles of HBr\begin{align*}\text{HBr}\end{align*} yields seven moles of KBr\begin{align*}\text{KBr}\end{align*} plus three moles of I2\begin{align*}\text{I}_2\end{align*} and three moles of H2O\begin{align*}\text{H}_2\text{O}\end{align*}.

Lesson Summary

• Stoichiometry is the calculation of the quantities of reactants or products in a chemical reaction using the relationships found in the balanced chemical equation.

This website contains various resources, including PowerPoint lectures, on many topics in chemistry, including one on stoichiometry.

Review Questions

1. Distinguish between formula unit, molecule, and mole. Give examples in your answer.

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