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# 26.3: C

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12
carbohydrate
molecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and has the general formula $\mathrm{C}_x(\mathrm{H}_2\mathrm{O})_y$
carbonyl group
a carbon atom double bonded to an oxygen atom
catalyst
a substance that speeds up the rate of the reaction without itself being consumed by the reaction
cathode
the electrode at which reduction occurs
cathode ray tube
a small glass tube with a cathode (a negatively charged metal plate) and an anode (a positively charged metal plate) at opposite ends
cation
a positive ion
chain reaction
a multi-stage nuclear reaction that sustains itself in a series of fissions in which the release of neutrons from the splitting of one atom leads to the splitting of others
Charles's law
describes the relationship between the volume and temperature of a gas
chemical change
change that occurs when one substance is turned into another substance
chemical kinetics
the study of rates of chemical reactions and how factors affect rates of reactions
chemical nomenclature
the systematic procedure for naming chemical compounds
chemical potential energy
energy stored in the atoms, molecules, and chemical bonds that make up matter
chemical property
property that can be observed only when a substance is changed into a new substance
chemical reaction
the process in which one or more substances are changed into one or more new substances
chemistry
the scientific study of matter and the changes that it undergoes
chromatography
any of various techniques for the separation of complex mixtures that rely on the differential affinities of substances for a mobile solvent and a stationary medium through which they pass
coefficient
a whole number that appears in front of a formula in a balanced chemical equation
colligative property
a property that is due only to the number of particles in solution and not related to the chemical properties of the solute
collision frequency
the total number of collisions per second
collision theory
explains why reactions occur at this particle level between atoms, ions, and/or molecules and enables prediction about what conditions are necessary for a successful reaction to take place
colloid
type of mixture in which the size of the particles is between $1 \times 10^3$ pm and $1 \times 10^6$ pm
column chromatography
a method of chromatography that uses a vertical column filled with absorbent material as the medium through which the mixture is separated
combined gas law
combines Boyle's, Charles's, and Gay-Lussac's laws and describes the relationship between the temperature, pressure, and volume of a gas
combustion
a group of chemical reactants in which the reactants are fuel and oxygen gas
combustion reaction
a reaction in which oxygen reacts with another substance to produce carbon dioxide and water
compound
a pure substance that is made up of more than one type of atom
concentrated
a solution in which there is a large amount of solute in a given amount of solvent
concentration
the measure of how much of a given substance is mixed with another substance
condensation
the process whereby a gas or vapor is changed to a liquid
conductor
a substance that can transmit heat and/or electricity
conjugate acid
the substance that results when a base gains (or accepts) a proton
conjugate base
the substance that results when an acid loses (or donates) a proton
control rod
made of chemical elements capable of absorbing many neutrons, it is used to control the rate of a fission chain reaction in a nuclear reactor
controlled experiment
an experiment that compares the results of an experimental sample to a control sample, where the control sample is identical to the experimental sample in all ways except for the one variable being tested
conversion factor
a factor used to convert one unit of measurement into another unit
coordinate covalent bonds
a type of covalent bond when the two shared electrons of a covalent bond are both donated by the same atom
core electrons
the electrons that are not in the outermost energy level of an atom
covalent bond
a type of chemical bond where two atoms are connected to each other by the sharing of two or more electrons in overlapped orbitals
crest
highest point in a wave pattern (peak of a hill)
critical mass
the smallest mass of a fissionable material that will sustain a nuclear chain reaction at a constant level
critical pressure
the pressure required to liquefy a gas at its critical temperature
critical temperature
the highest temperature at which it is possible to liquefy the substance by increasing pressure
cubic meter
the SI unit of volume

## Date Created:

Feb 23, 2012

Jan 07, 2015
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