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effective collision
a collision that results in a reaction
effective nuclear charge
the net charge experienced by a specific electron within an atom
electric current
flow of electric charge
electrochemical cell
an arrangement of electrodes and ionic solutions in which a spontaneous redox reaction is used to produce a flow of electrons in an external circuit
electrolysis
a chemical reaction brought about by an electric current
electrolyte
a solution that contains ions and is capable of conducting an electric current
electromagnetic spectrum
a list of all the possible types of light in order of decreasing frequency, increasing wavelength, or decreasing energy; spectrum includes gamma rays, X-rays, UV rays, visible light, IR radiation, microwaves, and radio waves
electron
a negatively charged subatomic particle
electron affinity
the energy released when an electron is added to a gaseous atom or ion
electron configuration code
a code that represents the arrangement of electrons of an atom
electron promotion
moving an electron from a lower sub-energy level to a higher sub-energy level within an energy level
electronegativity
the ability of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons
electronic geometry
the geometric arrangement of orbitals containing the shared and unshared electron pairs surrounding the central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion
electroplating
a process in which electrolysis is used as a means of coating an object with a layer of metal
electrostatic attraction
the force of attraction between opposite electric charges
element
a pure substance that is made up of only one type of atom
elementary step
a single, simple step in a multi-step reaction involving one or two particles
emission spectrum
the unique pattern of electromagnetic radiation frequencies obtained when an element is subjected to specific excitation
empirical formula
a formula that gives the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element present in the compound
endothermic reaction
reaction that has a potential energy difference between the products and reactants that is positive
endpoint
the point in the titration where the indicator changes color
energy
is the ability to do work or cause change
energy levels
possible orbits an electron can have in the electron cloud of an atom
enthalpy
amount of energy a system or substance contains
enthalpy of formation
the heat required to form one mole of a substance from its elements at standard temperature and pressure
entropy
a measure of the disorder of a system
enzyme
a subset of proteins that function to speed up a chemical reaction
equilibrium
state where the macroscopic properties of a system do not change over time
equilibrium constant (K)
a mathematical ratio that shows the concentrations of the products divided by concentration of the reactants
equilibrium vapor pressure
the pressure that is exerted, at a given temperature, by the vapor of a solid or liquid in equilibrium with the vapor
equivalence point
the point in the titration where the number of moles of acid equals the number of moles of base
ester
an organic compound with the general formula RCO2R', where R and R' are alkyl groups
ether
an organic compound that contains an oxygen atom bonded to two alkyl groups
evaporation
the escape of molecules from a liquid into the gaseous state at a temperature below the boiling point
excess reactant
any reactant present in an amount that is more than enough to react with the limiting reactant
exothermic reactions
reaction that has a potential energy difference between the products and reactants that is negative
experiment
a controlled method of testing a hypothesis
extrapolation
the process of creating data points beyond the end of a line graph, using the basic shape of the curve as a guide

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CK.SCI.ENG.SE.2.Chemistry-Glossary.26.5
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