In 1848 Lord Kelvin observed what happened to the volume of a gas as its temperature fell. For every 1°C drop in temperature, the gas contracted almost uniformly by 1/273th of its volume at 0°C. He interpreted this to mean that the volume must fall to zero at -273°C, absolute zero.
Describes how close a given set of data is to the “real” value.
Any compound that produces hydrogen ions (H+) in water.
The energy that is needed to get reactants close enough together for a reaction to occur.
The electromotive series (or activity series) ranks metals in terms of their ability to participate in oxidation-reduction reactions.
Ability to stick to other substances.
A practitioner of the medieval science of alchemy, which aimed mainly to transform everyday metals into gold.
The alcohol functional group is R-OH where R can represent any specific carbon structure. Alcohols can be primary, secondary, or tertiary.
Has a double-bonded carbon-oxygen bond (one sigma bond and one pi bond). The carbon to which the oxygen is attached has one hydrogen atom connected to it.
Contains only carbon-carbon single bonds.
Contains one or more carbon-carbon double bonds.
Contains one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds.
Multiple physical forms where one element can exist.
A solid solution either of two or more metals, or of a metal or metals with one or more nonmetals.
One basic form of secondary structure.
This emission consists of a helium nucleus.
Special type of alloy used for a variety of purposes, including dentistry and gold extraction.
Links individual acids together.
Forms between a carboxylic acid and an amine.
Functional group consists of a C attached to a N. There can be three different classes of amines: primary, secondary, and tertiary.
Solid that lacks an ordered internal structure.
Negatively charged ion.
The electrode at which oxidation occurs.
Produces a proton in solution.
Produces a hydroxide ion in solution.
The force exerted by a hypothetical column of gas that stretches from sea level to the outer reaches of the atmosphere.
Matter is composed of these tiny indivisible particles.
The weighted average of the atomic masses of the naturally occurring isotopes of that element.
Is equal to the number of protons in its nucleus.
The distance from an atom's nucleus to the outermost orbital of electron.
States that as protons are added one by one to the nucleus of an atom to build up the elements, electrons are similarly added to the atomic
Defined as 6.022 × 1023. It is a number used to describe amounts of atoms and molecules.
The composition of any atom can be illustrated with this shorthand notation.