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27.1: A

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absolute zero
In 1848 Lord Kelvin observed what happened to the volume of a gas as its temperature fell. For every 1°C drop in temperature, the gas contracted almost uniformly by 1/273th of its volume at 0°C. He interpreted this to mean that the volume must fall to zero at -273°C, absolute zero.
accuracy
Describes how close a given set of data is to the “real” value.
acid
Any compound that produces hydrogen ions (H+) in water.
activation energy
The energy that is needed to get reactants close enough together for a reaction to occur.
activity series
The electromotive series (or activity series) ranks metals in terms of their ability to participate in oxidation-reduction reactions.
adhesion
Ability to stick to other substances.
alchemist
A practitioner of the medieval science of alchemy, which aimed mainly to transform everyday metals into gold.
alcohol
The alcohol functional group is R-OH where R can represent any specific carbon structure. Alcohols can be primary, secondary, or tertiary.
aldehyde
Has a double-bonded carbon-oxygen bond (one sigma bond and one pi bond). The carbon to which the oxygen is attached has one hydrogen atom connected to it.
alkane
Contains only carbon-carbon single bonds.
alkene
Contains one or more carbon-carbon double bonds.
alkyne
Contains one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds.
allotrope
Multiple physical forms where one element can exist.
alloy
A solid solution either of two or more metals, or of a metal or metals with one or more nonmetals.
alpha helix
One basic form of secondary structure.
alpha particle
This emission consists of a helium nucleus.
amalgam
Special type of alloy used for a variety of purposes, including dentistry and gold extraction.
amide bond
Links individual acids together.
amide
Forms between a carboxylic acid and an amine.
amine
Functional group consists of a C attached to a N. There can be three different classes of amines: primary, secondary, and tertiary.
amorphous solid
Solid that lacks an ordered internal structure.
anion
Negatively charged ion.
anode
The electrode at which oxidation occurs.
Arrhenius acid
Produces a proton in solution.
Arrhenius base
Produces a hydroxide ion in solution.
atmospheric pressure
The force exerted by a hypothetical column of gas that stretches from sea level to the outer reaches of the atmosphere.
atom
Matter is composed of these tiny indivisible particles.
atomic mass
The weighted average of the atomic masses of the naturally occurring isotopes of that element.
atomic number
Is equal to the number of protons in its nucleus.
atomic radius
The distance from an atom's nucleus to the outermost orbital of electron.
Aufbau Principle
States that as protons are added one by one to the nucleus of an atom to build up the elements, electrons are similarly added to the atomic

orbitals.

Avogadro’s number
Defined as 6.022 × 1023. It is a number used to describe amounts of atoms and molecules.
A-Z notation
The composition of any atom can be illustrated with this shorthand notation.

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Sep 09, 2013

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CK.SCI.ENG.SE.1.Chemistry-Basic.27.1

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