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27.16: Q

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partial pressure
The pressure that each individual gas exerts.
Pauli exclusion principle
No two electrons in same atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers.
percent abundance
The percentage of atoms in a naturally occurring sample of the pure element that are a particular isotope.
percent error
An expression of the accuracy of a measurement, standardized to how large the measurement is.
percent uncertainty
The ratio of the uncertainty to the measured value, multiplied by one hundred.
percent yield
The ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield, expressed as a percentage.
periodic law
States that when elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their chemical and physical properties.
periodicity
Repetitive variations or trends in element properties.
PET
Positron emission tomography (PET), often referred to as a PET scan. One of the more useful approaches to radioisotope use in medicine. This technique is useful in studying the processes in the brain.
pH
The negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration.
philosopher’s stone
A substance that could cause the transmutation of lead into gold.
phlogiston
Substance previously thought to be a unstable component of all combustible substances.
photoelectric effect
Under the right conditions, light can be used to eject electrons from a solid material.
photoemissive
Materials that eject electrons when illuminated with light, such as potassium.
photon
A particle of light.
physical change
A change that affects the form of a chemical substance but does not change its chemical composition.
physical properties
Those properties that can be observed or measured without changing the composition of the matter. Physical properties of matter include mass, weight, volume, and density.
pi bond
Not connected directly between the two atoms, but above and below them.
plum pudding model
J. J. Thomson postulated that the atom was comprised of negatively charged particles in a disperse field of positive charge (positively charged particles had not yet been discovered). This proposed arrangement was compared to the arrangement of plums in plum pudding.
polarity
Polar molecules contain one or more atoms which possess either a partial positive or a partial negative charge.
polyatomic
Charged molecules comprised more than two elements.
polymer
Are long-chain materials with useful properties.
polyprotic acid
Has two or three available hydrogen to react.
polysaccharide
Made up of many monosaccharides.
positron
This emission involves the conversion of a proton in the nucleus to a neutron (remaining the in the nucleus) and an ejected positron (positive electron).
precision
Describes how close estimates are to one another.
pressure
Applied force per unit area on a surface.
primary structure
The amino acid sequence.
product-favored equilibrium
At the equilibrium, the concentration of products is large and the concentration of reactants is small.
proton
Positively charged and has a relatively large mass compared to electrons. They can be found in the nucleus of the atom.
pure substances
Substances with a constant composition that can only be broken down to their constituent parts by chemical means.
pyramidal
Geometry of an molecule with an equilateral triangle of 3 atoms and one atom right above.

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CK.SCI.ENG.SE.1.Chemistry-Basic.27.16

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