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# 27.19: T

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12
saturated
When no more solid dissolves.
scientific method
Developed mainly by Francis Bacon (1561-1626), a British scholar. Uses inductive reasoning and involves the following steps: 1. Ask a question. 2. Make observations. 3. Propose an explanation. 4. Design and carry out ways to test the hypothesis.
scientific notation
A way to express numbers as the product of two numbers, such as a coefficient and the number 10 raised to a power.
second law of thermodynamics
In any spontaneous process, there is always an increase in the entropy of the universe.
secondary structure
The local coiling or folding of biopolymers.
sigma bond
Made up of two overlapping electron orbitals and fills the space directly between the two atoms.
significant figures
Figures associated with uncertainty of a measurement.
single displacement
Includes a metal as one of the reactants and an acid or salt solution for the other reactant. The general form of this reaction is AB + C → AC + B.
solubility
The degree to which a solute dissolves in a solvent.
soluble
Can dissolve.
solute
The substance that comprises the smaller amount in solution.
solution
Has at least two components- the solute and solvent.
solvent
The substance which comprises the larger component of the solution.
specific heat
The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of material by one degree Celsius.
spectator ion
Ions that do not participate in the overall reaction.
spontaneous
Occurs without outside intervention.
standard enthalpy of formation
For any element in its most stable form it is zero. Can be calculated indirectly if the ΔHf values for each reactant and product are not known.
standard temperature and pressure (STP)
The number of moles of a gas was related to volume at a specific temperature and pressure. The temperature was established at 25°C and the pressure at one atmosphere – these conditions are known as STP. Under these conditions, it was determined that 22.4 liters of a gas comprised one mole of that gas. With this information, we can determine amounts of a gas given the volume at STP.
steroid
Organic compound that has a precise organization of four joined cycloalkane rings.
stoichiometric coefficient
In the formula aA+bB → cC+dD, letters a, b, c, d are stoichiometric coefficients. This formula can describe any chemical reaction, where A and B are reactants and C and D are products.
Stoichiometry
Area of chemistry that deals with the calculation of amounts of substances in a chemical reaction based on the balanced equation.
strong acid
Ionizes completely in solution.
strong base
Ionizes completely in solution.
supersaturated
When the amount of solute dissolved exceeds the solubility of the solute. Occurs when a solution is saturated and the temperature slowly drops.
surface tension
The amount of energy required to increase the surface of a liquid.
suspension
A heterogeneous mixture in which some of the particles settle out of the mixture upon standing.
system
The chemical reaction in a container.
systeme international (SI)
An international governing body developed this metric system of units of measurement for scientists.

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