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27.3: C

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calibration
A method of setting or correcting a measuring device by matching it to known measurement standards.
cancer
These cells have an abnormal structure due to the damaged DNA. In addition, they usually grow rapidly since the normal control processes regulating cell growth have been changed by the altered composition of the DNA.
carbohydrate
Has the general structure Cn(H2O)n. Can be classified in terms of chain length. Can be classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides.
catalyst
Material that speeds up the rate of reaction without undergoing any change itself.
cathode
The electrode at which reduction occurs.
cation
Positively charged ion.
Celsius scale
Defines the normal freezing point and boiling point of water as 0°C and 100°C, respectively.
Charles’s Law
States that the volume of a given mass of a gas, with constant pressure, is proportional to temperature.
chemical change
A change during which the chemical identity of a substance is altered. Chemical changes are often accompanied by a change in color, temperature, or odor, or the production of a gas or precipitate.
chemical equilibrium
The study of the forward and reverse nature of chemical processes.
chemical property
A property that describes the ability of a substance to undergo a specific chemical change.
chemical species
Atoms, ions, elements, compounds, etc that take place in a chemical reaction.
chemistry
The science of the properties, reaction, composition, and structures of matter.
cholesterol
Contains a four-ring system with a hydrocarbon side chain.
chromatography
The separation of a mixture by passing it through a medium in which the components move at different rates. This can be done as a liquid solution, a suspension, or a vapor (as in gas chromatography).
combustion
Occurs when a hydrocarbon reacts in the presence of oxygen to produce water and carbon dioxide.
cohesion
Ability to stick to itself.
colligative properties
Affected strictly by the amount of solute added and not the type of solute added.
collision theory
Molecules need to collide in order for a reaction to take place.
colloid
A mixture that is not totally homogeneous, nor totally heterogeneous.
combination reaction
Two chemical species combine to produce a new compound. The general expression for this reaction is A + B → C.
compounds
Substances with a constant composition that can be broken down into two or more elements by chemical processes.
continuous theory of matter
It was thought that matter could be divided and subdivided into smaller and smaller pieces without limit.
conversion factor
Used in solving problems in which a certain measurement must be expressed with different units.
copper cycle
A series of chemical reactions where an initial amount of copper reacts with nitric acid, goes into solution, and disappears. Then a series of reactions proceed, only to have the copper metal recovered. The copper cycle is a good illustration of how mass is conserved in a given chemical reaction.
corrosion
Involves the formation of an oxidized form of a metal by an electrochemical process.
covalent bond
Forms when two or more elements share electrons.
covalent compounds
Nonionic (not composed of cations and anions) substances that are comprised of nonmetals.
crystal lattice
A geometric arrangement of points in space at which the atoms, molecules, or ions of a crystal occur.
crystalline solid
Arranged in a geometric, organized, three-dimensional structure. Has definite melting point and shape.

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Sep 09, 2013

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CK.SCI.ENG.SE.1.Chemistry-Basic.27.3

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