When an electron is in a multi-electron atom, it produces this net positive charge.
Rate at which a gas escapes through a pinhole into a vacuum. Inversely proportional to the molar mass of the gas.
Collisions are elastic. Momentum is conserved. No energy is lost through collisions.
Is a process that uses electrons to cause certain chemical reactions to occur.
Arrangement of all the electrons of that atom.
As more electrons are added to a nucleus, the outer electrons become shielded from the nucleus by the inner shell electrons.
Negatively charged and has a very small mass compared to the mass of other subatomic particles. Electrons were initially called cathode rays.
Electronegativity (EN) is a measure of the relative tendency of an atom to attract electrons to itself when chemically combined with another atom.
Substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical or physical means.
The smallest whole number ratio of the numbers of atoms in a compound.
A substance that inhibits coagulation of colloidal particles and covers the particles of the dispersed phase.
If there are liquid-dispersed particles in liquid phase.
A reaction that requires heat for the reaction to take place.
A thermodynamic function of a system, equivalent to the sum of the internal energy of the system plus the product of its volume multiplied by the pressure exerted on it by its surroundings. The symbol for enthalpy is H.
enthalpy of reaction
When a mole of matter is altered by a chemical reaction under standard conditions, a change of enthalpy takes place.
A thermodynamic function that describes the number of arrangements that are available to a system existing in a given state. A measure of randomness or disorder. The symbol of entropy is S.
Catalyzes biochemical reactions.
Relates the concentrations of materials on both sides of the reaction arrow at equilibrium.
Can be used to describe changes for a chemical reaction.
The point in a neutralization reaction where the number of moles of hydrogen ions is equal to the number of moles of hydroxide ions.
Formed from a reaction between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid.
As used in measurement, is the process of referencing a physical quantity in terms of a calibration or reference point.
The ether functional group consists of an oxygen atom which forms single bonds with two carbon atoms.
The process whereby atoms or molecules in a liquid state (or solid state, if the substance sublimes) gain sufficient energy to enter the gaseous state. This can be used as a technique to separate the liquid component of a homogeneous mixture from its dissolved solids.
A reaction that releases heat during the course of the reaction.
Properties that depend on the amount of a substance that is present. Examples include mass, volume, and length.