Theory which states that the electrons in a molecule are assumed to occupy atomic orbitals of the individual atoms and that a covalent bond results from overlap of those orbitals.
Electrons in the highest occupied principal energy level of an atom.
The outermost electron-occupied shell of an atom.
valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR)
Theory for predicting molecular geometries; states that electron pairs will repel each other such that the shape of the molecule will adjust so that the valence electron-pairs stay as far apart from each other as possible.
van der Waals forces
The weakest intermolecular forces; they consist of dipole-dipole forces and dispersion forces.
Gaseous state of a substance that is solid or liquid at room temperature.
A measure of the force exerted by a gas above a liquid in a sealed container.
The process in which a liquid is converted to a gas.
An electrochemical cell that uses a spontaneous redox reaction to produce electrical energy.
Measure of the space occupied by a sample of matter.