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27.3: C

Created by: CK-12
calorimeter
An insulated container that is used to measure heat changes during a chemical or physical process.
calorimetry
The measurement of the transfer of heat into or out of a system during a chemical reaction or physical process.
carbohydrates
Monomers and polymers of aldehydes and ketones that have multiple hydroxyl groups attached.
carboxylic acid
An organic compound that contains the carboxyl functional group (−COOH).
catalyst
A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy without being used up in the reaction.
cathode
The electrode at which reduction occurs.
cathode ray
Glowing beam that travels from the cathode to the anode in a cathode ray tube.
cathode ray tube
Device in which an electric current is passed through gases at low pressure.
cation
A positively charged ion.
cell potential
The difference in reduction potential between the two half-cells in an electrochemical cell.
chain reaction
A reaction in which the material that starts the reaction is also one of the products and can start another reaction.
chemical change
Change that produces matter with a different composition.
chemical equation
A representation of a chemical reaction that displays the reactants and products with chemical formulas; multiple reactants or products are separated with a plus sign, while the reactants are separated from the products with a yield arrow.
chemical equilibrium
The state of a system in which the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction.
chemical potential energy
The energy stored in the chemical bonds of a substance.
chemical property
Describes the ability of a substance to undergo a specific chemical change.
chemical reaction
Process that occurs when one or more substances is changed into one or more new substances.
chemical symbol
One- or two-letter designation of an element.
chemistry
The study of the composition of matter and the changes that matter undergoes.
closest packing
The most efficient arrangements for packing atoms, ions, or molecules in a crystal.
coefficient
A small whole number placed in front of a formula in a chemical equation in order to balance it.
colligative property
A property of a solution that depends only upon the number of solute particles dissolved in the solution and not on their identity.
collision theory
A set of principles that states that reacting particles can form products when they collide with one another, provided those collisions have enough kinetic energy and the correct orientation.
colloid
A heterogeneous mixture whose particle size is intermediate between those of a solution and a suspension.
combination reaction
A reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a single new substance.
combined gas law
Gas law which expresses the relationship between the pressure, volume, and absolute temperature of a fixed amount of gas.
combustion reaction
A reaction in which a substance reactants with oxygen gas, releasing energy in the form of light and heat.
common ion
An ion that is in common to both salts in a solution.
common ion effect
A decrease in the solubility of an ionic compound as a result of the addition of an ion that is in common to one of the ions already in the saturated solution.
compound
Substance that contains two or more elements chemically combined in a fixed proportion.
compressibility
A measure of how much a given volume of matter decreases when placed under pressure.
concentrated
A solution that has a relatively large amount of dissolved solute.
concentration
A measure of the amount of solute that has been dissolved in a given amount of solvent or solution.
condensation
The change of state from a gas to a liquid.
condensation polymer
A polymer formed by condensation reactions.
condensation reaction
A reaction in which two molecules combine to form a single molecule.
conjugate acid
The particle produced when a base accepts a proton.
conjugate acid-base pair
A pair of substances related by the loss or gain of a single hydrogen ion.
conjugate base
The particle produced when an acid donates a proton.
control group
A group that experiences the same conditions as the experimental groups with the exception of the variable that is being tested.
control rod
Rod made of cadmium or boron that is used in a nuclear reactor to limit the available neutrons by absorbing some of them and preventing the fission reaction from proceeding too rapidly.
conversion factor
Ratio of equivalent measurements used to convert a quantity from one unit to another.
coordinate covalent bond
A covalent bond in which one of the atoms contributes both of the electrons in the shared pair.
coordination number
The number of ions (or atoms) that immediately surround an ion of the opposite charge (or other atoms) within a crystal lattice.
corrosion
The deterioration of metals by redox processes.
covalent bond
A bond in which two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons.
critical mass
The minimum amount of fissionable material needed to sustain a chain reaction.
critical pressure
The pressure that must be applied to a gas at its critical temperature in order to turn it into a liquid.
critical temperature
The highest temperature at which a substance can possibly exist as a liquid.
crystal
A solid substance in which the particles are arranged in an orderly, repeating, three-dimensional pattern.
cyclic hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon in which the carbon chain joins to itself in a ring.
cycloalkane
A cyclic hydrocarbon in which all of the carbon-carbon bonds are single bonds.
cycloalkene
A cyclic hydrocarbon with at least one carbon-carbon double bond.
cycloalkyne
A cyclic hydrocarbon with at least one carbon-carbon triple bond.

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Grades:

7 , 8

Date Created:

Apr 20, 2012

Last Modified:

Aug 01, 2014
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CK.SCI.ENG.SE.1.Phy-Sci-MS.26.3

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