An insulated container that is used to measure heat changes during a chemical or physical process.
The measurement of the transfer of heat into or out of a system during a chemical reaction or physical process.
Monomers and polymers of aldehydes and ketones that have multiple hydroxyl groups attached.
An organic compound that contains the carboxyl functional group (−COOH).
A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy without being used up in the reaction.
The electrode at which reduction occurs.
Glowing beam that travels from the cathode to the anode in a cathode ray tube.
cathode ray tube
Device in which an electric current is passed through gases at low pressure.
A positively charged ion.
The difference in reduction potential between the two half-cells in an electrochemical cell.
A reaction in which the material that starts the reaction is also one of the products and can start another reaction.
Change that produces matter with a different composition.
A representation of a chemical reaction that displays the reactants and products with chemical formulas; multiple reactants or products are separated with a plus sign, while the reactants are separated from the products with a yield arrow.
The state of a system in which the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction.
chemical potential energy
The energy stored in the chemical bonds of a substance.
Describes the ability of a substance to undergo a specific chemical change.
Process that occurs when one or more substances is changed into one or more new substances.
One- or two-letter designation of an element.
The study of the composition of matter and the changes that matter undergoes.
The most efficient arrangements for packing atoms, ions, or molecules in a crystal.
A small whole number placed in front of a formula in a chemical equation in order to balance it.
A property of a solution that depends only upon the number of solute particles dissolved in the solution and not on their identity.
A set of principles that states that reacting particles can form products when they collide with one another, provided those collisions have enough kinetic energy and the correct orientation.
A heterogeneous mixture whose particle size is intermediate between those of a solution and a suspension.
A reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a single new substance.
combined gas law
Gas law which expresses the relationship between the pressure, volume, and absolute temperature of a fixed amount of gas.
A reaction in which a substance reactants with oxygen gas, releasing energy in the form of light and heat.
An ion that is in common to both salts in a solution.
common ion effect
A decrease in the solubility of an ionic compound as a result of the addition of an ion that is in common to one of the ions already in the saturated solution.
Substance that contains two or more elements chemically combined in a fixed proportion.
A measure of how much a given volume of matter decreases when placed under pressure.
A solution that has a relatively large amount of dissolved solute.
A measure of the amount of solute that has been dissolved in a given amount of solvent or solution.
The change of state from a gas to a liquid.
A polymer formed by condensation reactions.
A reaction in which two molecules combine to form a single molecule.
The particle produced when a base accepts a proton.
conjugate acid-base pair
A pair of substances related by the loss or gain of a single hydrogen ion.
The particle produced when an acid donates a proton.
A group that experiences the same conditions as the experimental groups with the exception of the variable that is being tested.
Rod made of cadmium or boron that is used in a nuclear reactor to limit the available neutrons by absorbing some of them and preventing the fission reaction from proceeding too rapidly.
Ratio of equivalent measurements used to convert a quantity from one unit to another.
coordinate covalent bond
A covalent bond in which one of the atoms contributes both of the electrons in the shared pair.
The number of ions (or atoms) that immediately surround an ion of the opposite charge (or other atoms) within a crystal lattice.
The deterioration of metals by redox processes.
A bond in which two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons.
The minimum amount of fissionable material needed to sustain a chain reaction.
The pressure that must be applied to a gas at its critical temperature in order to turn it into a liquid.
The highest temperature at which a substance can possibly exist as a liquid.
A solid substance in which the particles are arranged in an orderly, repeating, three-dimensional pattern.
A hydrocarbon in which the carbon chain joins to itself in a ring.
A cyclic hydrocarbon in which all of the carbon-carbon bonds are single bonds.
A cyclic hydrocarbon with at least one carbon-carbon double bond.
A cyclic hydrocarbon with at least one carbon-carbon triple bond.