The process of a confined gas escaping through a tiny hole in its container.
A measurement of the ability of a voltaic cell to produce an electric current.
Any device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy or electrical energy into chemical energy.
A branch of chemistry that deals with the interconversion of chemical energy and electrical energy.
A conductor in a circuit that is used to carry electrons to a nonmetallic part of the circuit.
The process in which electrical energy is used to cause a nonspontaneous chemical reaction to occur.
A compound that conducts an electric current when it is in an aqueous solution or melted.
The apparatus used for carrying out an electrolysis reaction.
Form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it moves through space.
All forms of electromagnetic radiation.
Negatively charged subatomic particle present in all atoms.
The energy change that occurs when a neutral atom gains an electron.
Arrangement of all of the electrons of that atom.
electron domain geometry
Geometry based only one the total number of electron pairs around the central atom, both bonding pairs and lone pairs.
electron dot diagram
Diagram in which the valence electrons of an atom are shown as dots distributed around the element’s symbol.
Measure of the ability of an atom to attract the electrons when the atom is part of a compound.
A process in which a metal ion is reduced in an electrolytic cell and the solid metal is deposited onto a surface.
Simplest form of matter that has a unique set of properties.
One step in a series of simple reactions that show the progress of a reaction at the molecular level.
Formula that shows the elements in a compound in their lowest whole-number ratio.
A colloidal dispersion of a liquid in either a liquid or a solid.
The point during a titration experiment when the indicator changes color.
Condition of a process where heat is absorbed by the system from the surroundings.
Capacity to do work or to produce heat.
The heat content of a system at constant pressure.
A measure of the degree of randomness or disorder of a system.
A protein that acts as a biological catalyst.
equilibrium constant (Keq)
The ratio of the mathematical product of the concentrations of the products of a reaction to the mathematical product of the concentrations of the reactants of the reaction, with each concentration raised to the power of its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation.
The point in a neutralization reaction where the number of moles of hydrogen ions is equal to the number of moles of hydroxide ions.
Difference between the experimental and accepted values of a measurement.
An organic compound that is a derivative of a carboxylic acid in which the hydrogen atom of the hydroxyl group has been replaced with an alkyl group.
A reaction in which an ester is formed from an alcohol and a carboxylic acid.
An organic compound in which two hydrocarbon groups are bonded to the same atom of oxygen.
The conversion of a liquid to its vapor below the boiling temperature of the liquid.
excess reactant (reagent)
The reactant that is initially present in a greater amount than will eventually be reacted; some excess reactant is left over after the reaction is complete.
State of an atom where its potential energy is higher than the ground state.
Condition of a process where heat is released by the system into the surroundings.
Quantitative value of a measurement obtained during an experiment.
Property that depends on the amount of matter in a sample.