One part of a voltaic cell in which either the oxidation or reduction half-reaction takes place.
The time required for one half of the nuclei of a radioactive nuclide to decay.
An equation that shows either the oxidation or the reduction reaction that occurs during a redox reaction.
Element of Group 17 (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine).
Energy that is transferred from one object or substance to another because of a difference in temperature between them.
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of an object by 1°C.
heat of combustion
The heat released when one mole of a substance is completely burned.
heat of reaction
The enthalpy change for a chemical reaction.
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
Principle that states it is impossible to determine simultaneously both the position and the velocity of a particle.
Law that states that the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas above the liquid.
Hess’s law of heat summation
Law that states that if two or more thermochemical equations can be added together to give a final equation, then the heats of reaction can also be added to give a heat of reaction for the final equation.
Mixture in which the composition is not uniform throughout the mixture.
Mixture in which the composition is uniform throughout the mixture.
States that orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any orbital is occupied by a second electron and that each of the single electrons must have the same spin.
The mixing of the atomic orbitals in an atom to produce a set of hybrid orbitals.
The atomic orbitals obtained when two or more nonequivalent orbitals form the same atom combine in preparation for bond formation.
A compound that has one or more water molecules bound to each formula unit.
The process of solute particles being surrounded by water molecules arranged in a specific manner.
A reaction in which water is added to an alkene.
An organic compound that is made up of only carbon and hydrogen.
A reaction that occurs when molecular hydrogen is added to an alkene to produce an alkane.
An intermolecular attractive force in which a hydrogen atom that is covalently bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom is attracted to a lone pair of electrons on an atom in a neighboring molecule.
hydronium ion (H3O+)
An ion consisting of a water molecule with an attached hydrogen ion.
A testable conjecture that proposes an answer to a research question.