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27.19: S

Created by: CK-12
salt
An ionic compound composed of a cation from a base and an anion from an acid.
salt bridge
A tube containing an inert electrolyte that allows the passage of ions between the two half-cells.
salt hydrolysis
A reaction in which one of the ions from a salt reacts with water, forming either an acidic or basic solution.
saponification
The alkaline hydrolysis reaction of an ester; a reaction that makes soap molecules.
saturated hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon that contains the maximum number of hydrogen atoms that can possibly bond with the number of carbon atoms present.
saturated fat
A fat that consists of triglycerides whose carbon chains consist entirely of carbon-carbon single bonds.
scientific law
A statement that summarizes the results of many observations and experiments and to which there are no known exceptions.
scientific method
A systematic and logical approach to the acquisition of knowledge.
scientific notation
A way to express numbers as the product of two numbers: a coefficient and the number 10 raised to a power.
scintillation counter
A device that uses a phosphor-coated surface to detect radiation by the emission of bright bursts of light.
secondary structure
A highly regular sub-structure of a protein.
self-ionization
The process in which water ionizes to hydronium ions and hydroxide ions.
sigma bond (σ)
A bond formed by the overlap of orbitals in an end-to-end fashion, with the electron density concentrated between the nuclei of the bonding atoms.
significant figures
All the certain digits in that measurement plus one uncertain or estimated digit.
single covalent bond
The bond that forms when two atoms are joined by the sharing of one pair of electrons.
single-replacement reaction
A reaction in which one element replaces a similar element in a compound.
skeleton equation
A chemical equation that shows only the formulas of the reactants and products with nothing to indicate the relative amounts.
solid
A form of matter that has a definite shape and volume.
solubility
The amount of that substance that is required to form a saturated solution in a given amount of solvent at a specified temperature.
solubility product constant (Ksp)
The mathematical product of the ions that come from the dissociation of a nearly insoluble salt, each raised to the power of the coefficient of the ion in the equation.
solute
The dissolved particles in a solution.
solution
A homogeneous mixture consisting of a solute dissolved into a solvent.
solution equilibrium
The physical state described by the opposing processes of dissolution and recrystallization occurring at the same rate.
solvation
A process in which individual ions are surrounded by solvent particles after dissolving.
solvent
The dissolving medium of a solution.
specific heat
The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1°C.
specific rate constant
A proportionality constant relating the rate of a reaction to the concentrations of reactants.
spectator ion
An ion that does not take part in the chemical reaction and is found in solution both before and after the reaction.
spin quantum number
Indicates the direction of electron spin, symbolized by the letter ms.
spontaneous reaction
A reaction that favors the formation of products at the conditions under which the reaction is occurring.
standard cell potential (E0cell)
The cell potential when the temperature is 25°C, the solution concentrations are all 1 M and the pressure of any gases is standard (1 atm).
standard heat of formation
The enthalpy change associated with the formation of one mole of a compound from its elements in their standard states.
standard hydrogen electrode
A reference electrode that is used with another electrode (half-cell) to determine its standard reduction potential.
standard solution
The solution in a titration whose concentration is known.
standard temperature and pressure (STP)
The conditions at which the volumes of gases are measured and compared; it is equal to 0°C (273.15 K) and 1 atm (101.3 kPa and 760 mmHg) pressure.
stoichiometry
The area of chemistry that deals with the calculation of amounts of substances in a chemical reaction based on the balanced equation.
strong acid
An acid which ionizes completely in aqueous solution.
strong base
A base which ionizes completely in aqueous solution.
strong electrolyte
A solution in which a large fraction of the dissolved solute exists as ions.
structural formula
A formula that shows the arrangement of atoms in a molecule and represents covalent bonds between atoms by dashes.
structural isomer
One of multiple molecules that have the same molecular formula, but different structural formulas.
sublimation
The change of state from a solid to a gas without passing through the liquid state.
substance
Matter that has a uniform and definite composition.
substitution reaction
A reaction in which one or more atoms replace another atom or group of atoms in a molecule.
substrate
The molecule or molecules on which an enzyme acts.
supersaturated solution
A solution that contains more than the maximum amount of solute that is capable of being dissolved at a given temperature.
surface tension
A measure of the elastic force in the surface of a liquid.
surroundings
Everything in the universe that is not part of the system.
suspension
A heterogeneous mixture in which some of the particles settle out of the mixture upon standing.
system
The specific portion of matter in a given space that is being studied during an experiment or an observation.

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May 25, 2013

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Dec 03, 2014
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CK.SCI.ENG.SE.1.Chemistry-Intermediate.27.19

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