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9.32: Effect of Latitude on Climate

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12
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Where do you want to go on vacation?

If you live in a frigid climate you may want to go to lower latitudes for your mid-winter vacation. If you live in the desert, you may like to spend part of your summer at higher latitudes. Different climates are found at different latitudes.


Many factors influence the climate of a region. The most important factor is latitude because different latitudes receive different amounts of solar radiation.

The average annual temperature of the Earth, showing a roughly gradual temperature gradient from the low to the high latitudes.

  • The equator receives the most solar radiation. Days are equally long year-round and the sun is just about directly overhead at midday.
  • The polar regions receive the least solar radiation. The night lasts six months during the winter. Even in summer, the sun never rises very high in the sky. Sunlight filters through a thick wedge of atmosphere, making the sunlight much less intense. The high albedo, because of ice and snow, reflects a good portion of the sun's light.

Temperature with Latitude

It's easy to see the difference in temperature at different latitudes on the map above. But temperature is not completely correlated with latitude. There are many exceptions. For example, notice that the western portion of South America has relatively low temperatures due to the Andes Mountains. The Rocky Mountains in the United States also have lower temperatures due to high altitudes. Western Europe is warmer than it should be due to the Gulf Stream.


  • The amount of solar radiation received by the planet is greatest at the equator and lessens toward the poles.
  • At the poles the sun never rises very high in the sky and sunlight filters through a thick wedge of atmosphere.
  • Latitude is not the only factor that determines the temperature of a region, as can be seen in the striped map above.


Use this resource to answer the questions that follow.


1. What is climate?

2. What influences a regions climate?

3. What is latitude?

4. What is the climate at the equator?

5. What is the tropic of Cancer and the tropic of Capricorn?

6. What is the area between the tropic of Cancer and tropic of Capricorn climate?

7. What are the middle latitudes?

8. Describe the polar regions.

9. What is elevation?

10. How does elevation affect climate?


1. Why do the poles receive so much less solar radiation than the equator considering that it's light for six months at the poles?

2. Why is latitude considered the most important factor in determining temperature?

3. Look at a map of geological features and look at the temperature map to try to determine why some of the exceptions exist. What's the big blue blob north of India?

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Difficulty Level:

At Grade


Date Created:

Feb 24, 2012

Last Modified:

Jan 30, 2016
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