<meta http-equiv="refresh" content="1; url=/nojavascript/"> Scientific Models | CK-12 Foundation
Skip Navigation
You are reading an older version of this FlexBook® textbook: CK-12 Earth Science Concepts For Middle School Go to the latest version.

1.8: Scientific Models

Difficulty Level: Basic Created by: CK-12
Practice Scientific Models
Practice Now

Why do scientists need models?

Scientists work with models because reality is complex and difficult. Earth's climate is an example of a system that is both difficult and complex. Many factors influence climate: clouds, snow cover, ocean mixing, sequestration of carbon in the oceans, etc. In fact, there are many more factors than can be dealt with all at once. Models are necessary in science. However, you must always remember that a model is a model and not the real thing.

Models are Useful Tools

Scientific models are useful tools for scientists. Most of Earth's systems are extremely complex. Models allow scientists to work with systems that are nearly impossible to study as a whole. Models help scientists to understand these systems. They can analyze and make predictions about them using the models. There are different types of models.

  • Physical models are smaller and simpler representations of the thing being studied. A globe or a map is a physical model of a portion or all of Earth.
  • Conceptual models tie together many ideas to explain a phenomenon or event.
  • Mathematical models are sets of equations that take into account many factors to represent a phenomenon. Mathematical models are usually done on computers.

Many models are created on computers ( Figure below ). Only computers can handle and manipulate such enormous amounts of data. Many scientists now work with climate models. An unimaginable number of factors affect Earth’s climate. Many factors are dependent on one another. A reasonably accurate climate model needs the most powerful computers. Still, no computer has yet been developed that can work with the entire system. So scientists create models that represent parts of the system.

Many scientists use computers to model complicated processes.

Models Can be Used to Test Ideas

Scientists must test their ideas. It's much easier to work with a model than with a whole system. A scientist may want to understand how rising CO 2 levels will affect climate. In this case, it will be easier to model a smaller portion of that system. For example, he may model how higher levels of CO 2 affect plant growth and the effect that will have on climate.

Models Can be Used to Make Predictions

Models can be used to predict the future. The best ones take into account the most factors. How do scientists how if a model will predict the future accurately? One way is to use a time in the past as the starting point. Then run the model to see if the model can accurately predict the present. A model that can successfully predict the present is more likely to be better at predicting the future. For example, climate models are very useful for trying to determine what types of changes we can expect as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere rises.

Models Have Limitations

Since models are simpler than real objects or systems, they have limitations. A model deals with only a portion of a system. It may not predict the behavior of the real system very accurately. But the more computing power that goes into the model and the care with which the scientists construct the model can increase the chances that a model will be accurate.


  • scientific model : A simple representation of a more complex system.


  • A model is a representation of a more complex system. Models can be manipulated more easily than the system.
  • Models can be used to make predictions.
  • Models may be physical, conceptual, or mathematical.


Use this resource to answer the questions that follow.

Taking Earth's Temperature at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JRayIgKublg (4:00)

  1. What is a model?
  2. How do scientists create models?
  3. How are models checked for accuracy?
  4. How did Dr. Hansen check his model?
  5. What are the challenges associated with modeling?


  1. Why do scientists use models?
  2. Describe the types of models mentioned.
  3. Why are computers often used to make models?


scientific model

scientific model

Simple representation of a more complex system.

Image Attributions


Difficulty Level:



6 , 7

Date Created:

Jan 04, 2013

Last Modified:

Jan 02, 2015
Files can only be attached to the latest version of Modality


Please wait...
Please wait...
Image Detail
Sizes: Medium | Original
", "blacklisted": 0, "width": "529", "url": "http://s1.thingpic.com/images/2U/bQjFGgGgh6oWi2ezVoaF.png?hash=732cbd8a13e0594b3980337d3f05c348", "thumbnail": null, "height": "315", "caption": null, "iframe": "
", "provider": {"id": 55, "name": "ThingLink"}, "type": "customembed", "id": 53793, "description": null}, "uri": "http://s1.thingpic.com/images/2U/bQjFGgGgh6oWi2ezVoaF.png", "id": 6593207, "permaUri": "/interactive/user%3Ahuppertm/http%3A//s1.thingpic.com/images/2U/bQjFGgGgh6oWi2ezVoaF.png", "streamable": 0, "realm": "user:huppertm", "isAbused": false, "name": "Scientific Models Mind Map", "filesize": null, "revisions": [{"hash": null, "created": "2012-10-18T08:38:04-07:00", "resourceID": 6593207, "isPublic": true, "publishTime": "2012-09-28T23:02:48-07:00", "filesize": null, "id": 6051470, "revision": "1"}], "type": "interactive", "thumbnail": null, "revision": "1", "handle": "http://s1.thingpic.com/images/2U/bQjFGgGgh6oWi2ezVoaF.png", "description": "Illustrated mind map for Scientific Models.", "authors": "Charlene Calaunan", "ownerID": 4947, "isExternal": 1, "resourceRevisionID": 6051470, "license": "CC BY NC SA", "created": "2012-10-18T08:38:04-07:00", "satelliteUrl": null, "publishTime": "2012-09-28T23:02:48-07:00", "originalName": "http://s1.thingpic.com/images/2U/bQjFGgGgh6oWi2ezVoaF.png", "isAttachment": 1}, {"uri": "http://s.tudy.it/twvlxcq", "id": 6519806, "permaUri": "/web/http%3A//s.tudy.it/twvlxcq", "streamable": 0, "realm": null, "isAbused": false, "filesize": null, "revisions": [{"hash": null, "created": "2012-09-21T01:11:04-07:00", "resourceID": 6519806, "isPublic": true, "publishTime": "2013-07-05T17:58:44-07:00", "filesize": null, "id": 5972815, "revision": "1"}], "type": "web", "revision": "1", "handle": "http://s.tudy.it/twvlxcq", "description": "These flashcards help you study important terms and vocabulary from Scientific Models.", "isExternal": 1, "authors": "Danielle Pintz", "ownerID": 3, "name": "Scientific Models Flashcards", "resourceRevisionID": 5972815, "license": "CC BY NC SA", "created": "2012-09-21T01:11:04-07:00", "satelliteUrl": null, "publishTime": "2013-07-05T17:58:44-07:00", "originalName": "http://s.tudy.it/twvlxcq", "isAttachment": 1}, {"uri": "/flx/show/studyguide/StudyGuide_Scientific_Community_and_Research_Tools.docx", "boxDocuments": {"resourceID": 6520032, "updated": null, "id": 17386, "documentID": "a243aa3dd7fd44eb83e7acdb1fe93f6f", "created": "2014-07-18T15:58:09-07:00"}, "id": 6520032, "permaUri": "/studyguide/StudyGuide_Scientific_Community_and_Research_Tools.docx", "streamable": 0, "realm": null, "isAbused": false, "name": "Scientific Community and Research Tools Study Guide", "filesize": 77369, "revisions": [{"hash": null, "created": "2012-09-21T01:12:52-07:00", "resourceID": 6520032, "isPublic": true, "publishTime": "2012-09-28T23:27:32-07:00", "filesize": 77369, "id": 5973041, "revision": "1"}], "type": "studyguide", "revision": "1", "handle": "StudyGuide_Scientific_Community_and_Research_Tools.docx", "description": "This study guide summarizes the key points of Scientific Community and Scientific Models. You can download and customize it to suit your needs and study habits.", "authors": "Kelsey Flower", "ownerID": 3, "isExternal": 0, "resourceRevisionID": 5973041, "license": "CC BY NC SA", "created": "2012-09-21T01:12:52-07:00", "satelliteUrl": "https://dr282zn36sxxg.cloudfront.net/datastreams/f-d%3A22e1be99f3fbfbe51a8a7143c2d55887c27384f99a70c4e01319c344%2BSTUDYGUIDE%2BSTUDYGUIDE.1", "publishTime": "2012-09-28T23:27:32-07:00", "originalName": "StudyGuide_Scientific_Community_and_Research_Tools.docx", "isAttachment": 1}, {"uri": "/flx/show/cthink/Discussion_ScientificModels.docx", "boxDocuments": {"resourceID": 6518539, "updated": null, "id": 36822, "documentID": "9e2cd76d84c146c9bca62ffbd389ebf6", "created": "2014-08-02T11:02:10-07:00"}, "id": 6518539, "permaUri": "/cthink/Discussion_ScientificModels.docx", "streamable": 0, "realm": null, "isAbused": false, "name": "Scientific Models Discussion Questions", "filesize": 11766, "revisions": [{"hash": null, "created": "2012-09-20T23:28:06-07:00", "resourceID": 6518539, "isPublic": true, "publishTime": "2012-09-28T23:42:02-07:00", "filesize": 11766, "id": 5971545, "revision": "1"}], "type": "cthink", "revision": "1", "handle": "Discussion_ScientificModels.docx", "description": "A list of student-submitted discussion questions for Scientific Models.", "authors": "CK-12 2012 summer interns", "ownerID": 3, "isExternal": 0, "resourceRevisionID": 5971545, "license": "CC BY NC SA", "created": "2012-09-20T23:28:06-07:00", "satelliteUrl": "https://dr282zn36sxxg.cloudfront.net/datastreams/f-d%3A7c892bbd27cd73e8e36501bd6f512be77eca66198e4d776d70f1ddcd%2BCTHINK%2BCTHINK.1", "publishTime": "2012-09-28T23:42:02-07:00", "originalName": "Discussion_ScientificModels.docx", "isAttachment": 1}, {"embeddedObject": {"code": "", "blacklisted": 0, "width": "529", "url": "http://s1.thingpic.com/images/2U/bQjFGgGgh6oWi2ezVoaF.png?hash=732cbd8a13e0594b3980337d3f05c348", "thumbnail": null, "height": "315", "caption": null, "iframe": "
", "provider": {"id": 55, "name": "ThingLink"}, "type": "customembed", "id": 115434, "description": null}, "uri": "http://s1.thingpic.com/images/2U/bQjFGgGgh6oWi2ezVoaF.png", "id": 6518960, "permaUri": "/interactive/bQjFGgGgh6oWi2ezVoaF.png", "streamable": 0, "realm": null, "isAbused": false, "name": "Scientific Models Mind Map", "filesize": null, "revisions": [{"hash": null, "created": "2012-09-20T23:43:21-07:00", "resourceID": 6518960, "isPublic": true, "publishTime": "2014-04-29T11:42:34-07:00", "filesize": null, "id": 5971966, "revision": "1"}], "type": "interactive", "thumbnail": null, "revision": "1", "handle": "bQjFGgGgh6oWi2ezVoaF.png", "description": "Illustrated mind map for Scientific Models.", "authors": "Charlene Calaunan", "ownerID": 3, "isExternal": 1, "resourceRevisionID": 5971966, "license": "CC BY NC SA", "created": "2012-09-20T23:43:21-07:00", "satelliteUrl": null, "publishTime": "2014-04-29T11:42:34-07:00", "originalName": "http://s1.thingpic.com/images/2U/bQjFGgGgh6oWi2ezVoaF.png", "isAttachment": 1}], "creator": "CK-12", "labels": [], "file": "8381", "id": 2942155, "statistics": {"downloads": 6}, "isFavorite": false, "title": "Scientific Models", "creatorAuthID": 3, "offset": 42, "children": [], "parents": [[2959994, 7], [2960117, 7], [2942160, 10]], "isLatest": true, "revision": "43", "artifactRevisionID": 2942155, "handle": "Scientific-Models", "creatorID": 3, "authors": [{"roleID": 3, "sequence": 1, "role": "author", "name": "Dana Desonie, Ph.D.", "artifactID": 7863}], "artifactID": 7863, "resourceCounts": {"web": 1, "reading": 1, "allVideos": 0, "image": 1, "cover page": 1, "studyguide": 1, "allAttachments": 6, "cthink": 1, "contents": 1, "interactive": 2}, "language": "English", "created": "2014-12-29T15:38:08-08:00", "summary": "Recognize the uses, limitations, and different types of scientific models.", "encodedID": "SCI.ESC.116.L.1", "published": "2014-12-29T15:38:12-08:00", "pdf": [], "artifactType": "lesson"}], "realm": null, "title": "Scientific Models", "standardGrid": {}, "creatorAuthID": 3, "exerciseCount": 0, "feedbacks": {"rating": {"count": 0, "average": 0, "1": 0, "3": 0, "2": 0, "5": 0, "4": 0}, "voting": {"dislike": 0, "like": 2}}, "gradeGrid": [], "subjectGrid": [], "internalTagGrid": [], "tagGrid": [], "messageToUsers": null, "type": {"modality": true, "extensionType": "L", "description": "The lesson artifact", "name": "lesson", "id": 3}, "searchGrid": [], "artifactRevisionID": 2942155, "handle": "Scientific-Models", "vocabulary": [{"languageCode": "en", "languageName": "English"}, {"languageCode": "es", "languageName": "Spanish"}], "isModality": 1, "revisionInLibrary": null, "foundationGrid": [], "stateGrid": [], "creatorLogin": "ck12editor", "creatorID": 3, "authors": [{"roleID": 3, "sequence": 1, "role": "author", "name": "Dana Desonie, Ph.D.", "artifactID": 7863}], "artifactID": 7863, "latestRevision": "43", "license": "CC BY NC", "created": "2012-02-24T04:10:04-08:00", "coverImage": "/flx/show/cover%20page/b4a3ee1735098d20d301758503eeb995-201412291419896069263821-201412291419896283917937.jpg", "level": "at grade", "latestRevisionID": 2942155, "modified": "2014-12-29T15:38:12-08:00", "summary": "Recognize the uses, limitations, and different types of scientific models.", "coverImageSatelliteUrl": "https://dr282zn36sxxg.cloudfront.net/datastreams/f-d%3A1abfa60aa24d46db40ce4e75d13ffb36c00bec983cdad29d6676bbcc%2BIMAGE%2BIMAGE.1", "encodedID": "SCI.ESC.116.L.1", "artifactType": "lesson"}]}, "isModality": 1, "modality": {"artifact_type": "lesson", "weight_teacher": 10, "student_show": true, "display_label": "Read", "weight_student": 10}, "revisionInLibrary": null, "coverImageThumbLarge": "/flx/show/THUMB_LARGE/cover%20page/46f0f9d911480b10a0c954aaadc9bc14-201301081357669046317177-201301081357669142238890.jpg", "modality_display_label": "Read", "hasXhtml": true, "foundationGrid": [[846, "Scientific Models", "SCI.ESC.116", "Scientific-Models", "earth-science"]], "stateGrid": [[1937, "CA"]], "creatorLogin": "ck12editor", "extendedArtifacts": {}, "creatorID": 3, "authors": [{"roleID": 3, "sequence": 1, "role": "author", "name": "Dana Desonie, Ph.D.", "artifactID": 1131025}], "post": {"section": {"1.9": {"domain": {"term": "Scientific Community", "handle": "Scientific-Community", "description": null, "parent": {"term": "Process of Science", "handle": "Process-of-Science", "description": null, "parent": {"term": "Scientific Explanations and Interpretations", "handle": "Scientific-Explanations-and-Interpretations", "description": null, "parent": {"term": "Introduction to Earth Science", "handle": "Introduction-to-Earth-Science", "description": null, "parent": {"term": "Earth Science", "handle": "Earth-Science", "description": null, "parent": {"term": "Science", "handle": "Science", "description": null, "parent": {"term": "root", "handle": "root", "description": null, "encodedID": "CKT", "branch": null, "previewImageUrl": "http://www.ck12.org/media/images/modality_generic_icons/concept_gicon.png", "from": "domain", "subject": "CKT", "type": "domain", "id": 1, "name": "root"}, "previewImageUrl": "http://concepts.ck12.org/preview/introduction-to-animals.jpg", "encodedID": "SCI", "branch": null, "parentID": 1, "from": "domain", "subject": "SCI", "type": "domain", "id": 9, "name": "Science"}, "previewImageUrl": "http://concepts.ck12.org/preview/earthscience.jpg", "encodedID": "SCI.ESC", "branch": "ESC", "parentID": 9, "from": "domain", "subject": "SCI", "type": "domain", "id": 12, "branchInfo": {"term": "Earth Science", "handle": "Earth-Science", "description": null, "previewImageUrl": "http://concepts.ck12.org/preview/earthscience.jpg", "encodedID": "SCI.ESC", "branch": "ESC", "parentID": 9, "from": "domain", "subject": "SCI", "type": "domain", "id": 12, "name": "Earth Science"}, "name": "Earth Science"}, "previewImageUrl": "http://concepts.ck12.org/preview/introduction-to-earth-science.jpg", "encodedID": "SCI.ESC.100", "branch": "ESC", "parentID": 12, "from": "domain", "subject": "SCI", "type": "domain", "id": 834, "branchInfo": {"term": "Earth Science", "handle": "Earth-Science", "description": null, "previewImageUrl": "http://concepts.ck12.org/preview/earthscience.jpg", "encodedID": "SCI.ESC", "branch": "ESC", "parentID": 9, "from": "domain", "subject": "SCI", "type": "domain", "id": 12, "name": "Earth Science"}, "name": "Introduction to Earth Science"}, "previewImageUrl": "http://concepts.ck12.org/preview/scientific-explanations-and-interpretations.jpg", "encodedID": "SCI.ESC.110", "branch": "ESC", "parentID": 834, "from": "domain", "subject": "SCI", "type": "domain", "id": 835, "branchInfo": {"term": "Earth Science", "handle": "Earth-Science", "description": null, "previewImageUrl": "http://concepts.ck12.org/preview/earthscience.jpg", "encodedID": "SCI.ESC", "branch": "ESC", "parentID": 9, "from": "domain", "subject": "SCI", "type": "domain", "id": 12, "name": "Earth Science"}, "name": "Scientific Explanations and Interpretations"}, "previewImageUrl": "http://concepts.ck12.org/preview/triangle-relationship.jpg", "encodedID": "SCI.ESC.114", "branch": "ESC", "parentID": 835, "from": "domain", "subject": "SCI", "type": "domain", "id": 837, "branchInfo": {"term": "Earth Science", "handle": "Earth-Science", "description": null, "previewImageUrl": "http://concepts.ck12.org/preview/earthscience.jpg", "encodedID": "SCI.ESC", "branch": "ESC", "parentID": 9, "from": "domain", "subject": "SCI", "type": "domain", "id": 12, "name": "Earth Science"}, "name": "Process of Science"}, "previewImageUrl": "http://concepts.ck12.org/preview/scientific-community.jpg", "encodedID": "SCI.ESC.114.8", "branch": "ESC", "parentID": 837, "from": "domain", "subject": "SCI", "type": "domain", "id": 845, "branchInfo": {"term": "Earth Science", "handle": "Earth-Science", "description": null, "previewImageUrl": "http://concepts.ck12.org/preview/earthscience.jpg", "encodedID": "SCI.ESC", "branch": "ESC", "parentID": 9, "from": "domain", "subject": "SCI", "type": "domain", "id": 12, "name": "Earth Science"}, "name": "Scientific Community"}, "creator": "CK-12", "contributor": null, "lastRead": null, "perma": "/lesson/Scientific-Community-Basic", "id": 1131027, "realm": null, "title": "Scientific Community", "creatorAuthID": 3, "exerciseCount": 0, "feedbacks": {"rating": {"count": 0, "average": 0, "1": 0, "3": 0, "2": 0, "5": 0, "4": 0}, "voting": {"dislike": 0, "like": 1}}, "gradeGrid": [[2080, "6"], [1935, "7"]], "subjectGrid": [[3568, "science"], [3595, "Earth Science"]], "internalTagGrid": [], "messageToUsers": null, "type": {"modality": true, "extensionType": "L", "description": "The lesson artifact", "name": "lesson", "id": 3}, "searchGrid": [], "revision": "2", "artifactRevisionID": 1438636, "handle": "Scientific-Community-Basic", "isModality": 1, "revisionInLibrary": null, "hasXhtml": true, "foundationGrid": [[845, "Scientific Community", "SCI.ESC.114.8", "Scientific-Community", "earth-science"]], "stateGrid": [[1937, "CA"]], "creatorLogin": "ck12editor", "extendedArtifacts": {}, "creatorID": 3, "authors": [{"roleID": 3, "sequence": 1, "role": "author", "name": "Dana Desonie, Ph.D.", "artifactID": 1131027}], "artifactID": 1131027, "latestRevision": "43", "license": "CC BY NC", "created": "2013-01-04T15:54:08-08:00", "coverImage": "/flx/show/cover%20page/b1a744b5f40bcbdfc46977f53068d0fa-201301081357669046363160-201301081357669151443454.jpg", "level": "basic", "latestRevisionID": 2952567, "modified": "2015-01-02T11:10:09-08:00", "summary": "How the scientific community shares results and monitors scientific integrity.", "coverImageSatelliteUrl": "https://dr282zn36sxxg.cloudfront.net/datastreams/f-d%3A1bf78a9c20641b83acd8128edaa3230d01de14a230561fd66cb9fdfb%2BIMAGE%2BIMAGE.1", "encodedID": "SCI.ESC.114.8.L.2", "artifactType": "lesson"}}, "parent": null}, "level": "basic", "vocabulary_info": null, "artifactID": 1131025, "latestRevision": "46", "contributed_by": "", "license": "CC BY NC", "tagGrid": [[4749, "mathematical model"], [7191, "conceptual model"], [7192, "physical model"], [7193, "scientific model"], [16644, "SCI.ESC.116.L.2"]], "coverImage": "/flx/show/cover%20page/46f0f9d911480b10a0c954aaadc9bc14-201301081357669046317177-201301081357669142238890.jpg", "created": "2013-01-04T15:54:01-08:00", "latestRevisionID": 2952565, "modified": "2015-01-02T11:10:09-08:00", "summary": "Recognize the uses, limitations, and different types of scientific models.", "coverImageSatelliteUrl": "https://dr282zn36sxxg.cloudfront.net/datastreams/f-d%3Afefef7799f047e5bc7345e52f65a3490610d53f5b055b1fe8e02a53e%2BIMAGE%2BIMAGE.1", "encodedID": "SCI.ESC.116.L.2", "standardGrid": {}, "artifactType": "lesson", "url_mobi": null}; window.context_json_encoded = {"domain": {"term": "Science", "handle": "Science", "description": null, "parent": {"term": "root", "handle": "root", "description": null, "encodedID": "CKT", "branch": null, "previewImageUrl": "http://www.ck12.org/media/images/modality_generic_icons/concept_gicon.png", "from": "domain", "subject": "CKT", "type": "domain", "id": 1, "name": "root"}, "previewImageUrl": "http://concepts.ck12.org/preview/introduction-to-animals.jpg", "encodedID": "SCI", "branch": null, "parentID": 1, "from": "domain", "subject": "SCI", "type": "domain", "id": 9, "name": "Science"}, "creator": "CK-12", "labels": [], "contributor": null, "handle": "CK-12-Earth-Science-Concepts-For-Middle-School", "perma": "book/CK-12-Earth-Science-Concepts-For-Middle-School/", "url_pdf": ["/flx/show/pdf/CK-12-Middle-School-Earth-Science-Concepts_b_v2_kjm_s2.pdf", "/flx/show/pdf/CK-12-Middle-School-Earth-Science-Concepts_b_v2_xot_s2.pdf"], "url_epub": "/flx/show/epub/CK-12-Middle-School-Earth-Science-Concepts_b_v2_k8h.epub", "feedbacks": {"rating": {"count": 0, "average": 0, "1": 0, "3": 0, "2": 0, "5": 0, "4": 0}, "voting": {"dislike": 10, "like": 43}}, "conceptNode": "CK.SCI.ENG.SE", "realm": null, "resourceCounts": {"allVideos": 0, "image": 1, "cover page": 1, "allAttachments": 0, "contents": 1, "pdf": 2, "epub": 1}, "title": "CK-12 Earth Science Concepts For Middle School", "coverImageThumbSmall": "/flx/show/THUMB_SMALL/cover%20page/custom-CK-12_Middle_School_Earth_Science_Concepts-201301081357672855308086.jpg", "standardGrid": {}, "creatorAuthID": 3, "exerciseCount": 0, "id": 1131638, "gradeGrid": [[2080, "6"], [1935, "7"]], "handle-encoded": true, "subjectGrid": [[3568, "science"], [3595, "Earth Science"]], "internalTagGrid": [], "messageToUsers": "Teachers and parents can access additional teaching materials from the Resources Tab above.", "isLatest": false, "xhtml": "\n\n \n \n \n \n

\n Front Matter\n


\n Foreword\n


\n The study of Earth Science is the study of Planet Earth. Middle School Earth Science Concepts presents Earth Science as a set of concepts, with each concept centered around a specific category, such as the Earth's crust or plate tectonics. Each concept is comprised of a series of lessons, with each lesson focusing on one specific topic.\n


\n Preface\n


\n Dedication\n


\n Chapters\n


\n \"\"\n

\n \n

\n Back Matter\n

\n \n\n", "type": {"modality": false, "extensionType": "FB", "description": "The book artifact (student or default edition)", "name": "book", "id": 1}, "searchGrid": [], "revision": "2", "artifactRevisionID": 1439356, "lastRead": null, "isModality": 0, "revisionInLibrary": null, "coverImageThumbLarge": "/flx/show/THUMB_LARGE/cover%20page/custom-CK-12_Middle_School_Earth_Science_Concepts-201301081357672855308086.jpg", "hasXhtml": true, "foundationGrid": [[9, "Science", "SCI", "Science", null], [12, "Earth Science", "SCI.ESC", "Earth-Science", "earth-science"]], "stateGrid": [[1937, "CA"]], "creatorLogin": "ck12editor", "extendedArtifacts": {}, "creatorID": 3, "authors": [{"roleID": 3, "sequence": 1, "role": "author", "name": "Dana Desonie, Ph.D.", "artifactID": 1131638}], "level": "basic", "artifactID": 1131638, "latestRevision": "82", "contributed_by": "", "license": "CC BY NC", "tagGrid": [[5557, "Earth Science"], [8268, "concepts"], [10091, "middle school"], [17311, "CK.SCI.ENG.SE.1.CK-12-Middle-School-Concept-Earth-Science"]], "coverImage": "/flx/show/cover%20page/custom-CK-12_Middle_School_Earth_Science_Concepts-201301081357672855308086.jpg", "created": "2013-01-04T16:35:15-08:00", "latestRevisionID": 2967983, "modified": "2015-01-07T09:45:06-08:00", "summary": "Earth Science concepts for middle school.", "coverImageSatelliteUrl": "https://dr282zn36sxxg.cloudfront.net/datastreams/f-d%3Aaa7b3711bb6e0eb1554306b8e25d538d08b8321cabb302a9e08f5b8a%2BCOVER_PAGE%2BCOVER_PAGE.1", "encodedID": "CK.SCI.ENG.SE.1.CK-12-Middle-School-Concept-Earth-Science", "artifactType": "book", "url_mobi": null};

Original text