<meta http-equiv="refresh" content="1; url=/nojavascript/"> Surface Features of the Sun | CK-12 Foundation
Dismiss
Skip Navigation
You are reading an older version of this FlexBook® textbook: CK-12 Earth Science Concepts For Middle School Go to the latest version.

13.4: Surface Features of the Sun

Difficulty Level: Basic / At Grade Created by: CK-12
%
Best Score
Practice Surface Features of the Sun
Practice
Best Score
%
Practice Now

Is the Sun always the same?

For most of human history people thought the Sun didn't change much. But technology has offered us a window into the Sun's life. SOHO and other technologies allow us to observe incredible sunspots, flares and prominences. Some of these are featured in this lesson.

Surface Features of the Sun

The sun has many incredible surface features. Don't try to look at them though! Looking directly at the Sun can cause blindness. Find the appropriate filters for a pair of binoculars or a telescope and enjoy!

Sunspots

The most noticeable magnetic activity of the Sun is the appearance of sunspots. Sunspots are cooler, darker areas on the Sun’s surface (Figure below). Sunspots occur in an 11-year cycle. The number of sunspots begins at a minimum. The number gradually increases to the maximum. Then the number returns to a minimum again.

Sunspots form because loops of the Sun’s magnetic field break through the surface. Sunspots usually occur in pairs. The loop breaks through the surface where it comes out of the Sun. It breaks through again where it goes back into the Sun. Sunspots disrupt the transfer of heat from the Sun's lower layers.

The darker regions in this image are sunspots.

Solar Flares

A loop of the sun’s magnetic field may break. This creates solar flares. Solar flares are violent explosions that release huge amounts of energy (Figure below). The streams of high energy particles they emit make up the solar wind. Solar wind is dangerous to spacecraft and astronauts. Solar flares can even cause damage on Earth. They have knocked out entire power grids and can disturb radio, satellite, and cell phone communications.

The solar flare is the bright area in the lower right.

Solar Prominences

Another amazing feature on the Sun is solar prominences. Plasma flows along the loop that connects sunspots. This plasma forms a glowing arch. The arch is a solar prominence. Solar prominences can reach thousands of kilometers into the Sun’s atmosphere. Prominences can last for a day to several months. Prominences can be seen during a total solar eclipse.

Solar Dynamics Observatory

NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) was launched on February 11, 2010. SDO is studying the Sun's magnetic field. This includes how the Sun affects Earth's atmosphere and climate. SDO provides extremely high resolution images. The craft gathers data faster than anything that ever studied the sun.

To learn more about the SDO mission, visit: http://sdo.gsfc.nasa.gov

To find these videos for download, check out: http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/sdo/news/briefing-materials-20100421.html and http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/Gallery/SDOFirstLight.html

Vocabulary

  • solar flare: A violent explosion on the Sun’s surface.
  • solar prominence: Plasma loop flowing between sunspots.
  • solar wind: High energy particles that fly out from the Sun.
  • sunspot: Cool, dark area on the Sun’s surface that have lower temperatures than surrounding areas.

Summary

  • Sunspots occur in pairs. Each is one side of a loop of the Sun's magnetic field on the Sun's surface. Sunspots come and go on an 11-year cycle.
  • Sunspots are cooler and darker than the rest of the Sun's surface. They are marked by intense magnetic activity.
  • Solar prominences are the plasma loops that connect two sunspots.
  • Solar flares and coronal mass ejections are eruptions of highly energetic particles from the Sun's surface.

Practice

Use these resources to answer the questions that follow.

http://www.almanac.com/content/what-are-sunspots

  1. What are sunspots?
  2. What is a solar flare?
  3. How can solar flares affect Earth?
  4. Why do scientists study sunspots?
  5. What features do scientists study about sunspots?
  6. What is the normal sunspot cycle?

Review

  1. What are sunspots? What is a sunspot cycle?
  2. How are solar prominences related to sunspots?
  3. What is being learned from the Solar Dynamics Observatory?

Image Attributions

Description

Difficulty Level:

Basic

Grades:

6 , 7 , 8

Date Created:

Jan 04, 2013

Last Modified:

Feb 26, 2014
Files can only be attached to the latest version of Modality

Reviews

Please wait...
You need to be signed in to perform this action. Please sign-in and try again.
Please wait...
Image Detail
Sizes: Medium | Original
 
SCI.ESC.923.2.L.2
", "blacklisted": 0, "width": "402", "url": "http://s2.thingpic.com/images/UF/Zodx3KAHqPb5LbB15j4r.png?hash=9437e68057b9cd393205f0c324ea4a79", "thumbnail": null, "height": "315", "caption": null, "iframe": "
", "provider": {"id": 55, "name": "ThingLink"}, "type": "customembed", "id": 89879, "description": null}, "uri": "http://s2.thingpic.com/images/UF/Zodx3KAHqPb5LbB15j4r.png", "id": 6518990, "permaUri": "/interactive/http%3A//s2.thingpic.com/images/UF/Zodx3KAHqPb5LbB15j4r.png", "streamable": 0, "realm": null, "isAbused": false, "name": "Surface Features of the Sun Mind Map", "filesize": null, "revisions": [{"hash": null, "created": "2012-09-20T23:43:47-07:00", "resourceID": 6518990, "isPublic": true, "publishTime": "2013-09-30T14:17:09-07:00", "filesize": null, "id": 5971996, "revision": "1"}], "type": "interactive", "thumbnail": null, "revision": "1", "handle": "http://s2.thingpic.com/images/UF/Zodx3KAHqPb5LbB15j4r.png", "description": "Illustrated mind map for Surface Features of the Sun.", "authors": "Charlene Calaunan", "ownerID": 3, "isExternal": 1, "resourceRevisionID": 5971996, "license": "CC BY NC SA", "created": "2012-09-20T23:43:47-07:00", "publishTime": "2013-09-30T14:17:09-07:00", "originalName": "http://s2.thingpic.com/images/UF/Zodx3KAHqPb5LbB15j4r.png", "isAttachment": 1}, {"publishTime": "2012-09-28T23:45:58-07:00", "id": 6518790, "permaUri": "/cthink/Discussion_SurfaceFeaturesSun.docx", "streamable": 0, "realm": null, "isAbused": false, "filesize": 14628, "revisions": [{"hash": null, "created": "2012-09-20T23:37:48-07:00", "resourceID": 6518790, "isPublic": true, "publishTime": "2012-09-28T23:45:58-07:00", "filesize": 14628, "id": 5971796, "revision": "1"}], "type": "cthink", "revision": "1", "handle": "Discussion_SurfaceFeaturesSun.docx", "description": "A list of student-submitted discussion questions for Surface Features of the Sun.", "isExternal": 0, "authors": "CK-12 2012 summer interns", "ownerID": 3, "name": "Surface Features of the Sun Discussion Questions", "resourceRevisionID": 5971796, "license": "CC BY NC SA", "created": "2012-09-20T23:37:48-07:00", "uri": "/flx/show/cthink/Discussion_SurfaceFeaturesSun.docx", "originalName": "Discussion_SurfaceFeaturesSun.docx", "isAttachment": 1}, {"publishTime": "2012-08-27T20:22:28-07:00", "id": 3158542, "permaUri": "/web/http%3A//www.youtube.com/watch%3Fv%3DMDacxUQWeRw", "streamable": 0, "realm": null, "isAbused": false, "filesize": null, "revisions": [{"hash": null, "created": "2012-08-27T20:22:28-07:00", "resourceID": 3158542, "isPublic": true, "publishTime": "2012-08-27T20:22:28-07:00", "filesize": null, "id": 2620908, "revision": "1"}], "type": "web", "revision": "1", "handle": "http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MDacxUQWeRw", "description": "http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MDacxUQWeRw", "isExternal": 1, "authors": null, "ownerID": 3, "name": "http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MDacxUQWeRw", "resourceRevisionID": 2620908, "license": null, "created": "2012-08-27T20:22:28-07:00", "uri": "http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MDacxUQWeRw", "originalName": "http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MDacxUQWeRw", "isAttachment": 1}, {"publishTime": "2012-08-27T20:22:29-07:00", "id": 3158545, "permaUri": "/web/http%3A//www.youtube.com/watch%3Fv%3DQrmUUcr4HXg", "streamable": 0, "realm": null, "isAbused": false, "filesize": null, "revisions": [{"hash": null, "created": "2012-08-27T20:22:29-07:00", "resourceID": 3158545, "isPublic": true, "publishTime": "2012-08-27T20:22:29-07:00", "filesize": null, "id": 2620910, "revision": "1"}], "type": "web", "revision": "1", "handle": "http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QrmUUcr4HXg", "description": "http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QrmUUcr4HXg", "isExternal": 1, "authors": null, "ownerID": 3, "name": "http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QrmUUcr4HXg", "resourceRevisionID": 2620910, "license": null, "created": "2012-08-27T20:22:29-07:00", "uri": "http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QrmUUcr4HXg", "originalName": "http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QrmUUcr4HXg", "isAttachment": 1}, {"publishTime": "2012-08-27T20:22:30-07:00", "id": 3158550, "permaUri": "/web/http%3A//www.kqed.org/quest/television/journey-into-the-sun.", "streamable": 0, "realm": null, "isAbused": false, "filesize": null, "revisions": [{"hash": null, "created": "2012-08-27T20:22:30-07:00", "resourceID": 3158550, "isPublic": true, "publishTime": "2012-08-27T20:22:30-07:00", "filesize": null, "id": 2620915, "revision": "1"}], "type": "web", "revision": "1", "handle": "http://www.kqed.org/quest/television/journey-into-the-sun.", "description": "http://www.kqed.org/quest/television/journey-into-the-sun.", "isExternal": 1, "authors": null, "ownerID": 3, "name": "http://www.kqed.org/quest/television/journey-into-the-sun.", "resourceRevisionID": 2620915, "license": null, "created": "2012-08-27T20:22:30-07:00", "uri": "http://www.kqed.org/quest/television/journey-into-the-sun.", "originalName": "http://www.kqed.org/quest/television/journey-into-the-sun.", "isAttachment": 1}, {"embeddedObject": {"code": "", "blacklisted": 0, "width": "440", "url": "http://www.youtube.com/embed/DU4hpsistDk?wmode=transparent&rel=0&hash=6cb72521e4c3f94689b97172c2c05abf", "thumbnail": "http://i1.ytimg.com/vi/DU4hpsistDk/hqdefault.jpg", "height": "335", "caption": null, "iframe": "
", "provider": {"id": 1, "name": "YouTube"}, "type": "youtube", "id": 88465, "description": null}, "uri": "http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DU4hpsistDk", "id": 6518310, "permaUri": "/video/http%3A//www.youtube.com/watch%3Fv%3DDU4hpsistDk", "streamable": 1, "realm": null, "isAbused": false, "name": "Naked Science: Massive Solar Storms", "filesize": null, "revisions": [{"hash": null, "created": "2012-09-20T23:22:56-07:00", "resourceID": 6518310, "isPublic": true, "publishTime": "2013-09-24T14:39:02-07:00", "filesize": null, "id": 5971316, "revision": "1"}], "type": "video", "thumbnail": "http://i1.ytimg.com/vi/DU4hpsistDk/hqdefault.jpg", "revision": "1", "handle": "http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DU4hpsistDk", "description": "A video on solar storms.", "authors": "National Geographic", "ownerID": 3, "isExternal": 1, "resourceRevisionID": 5971316, "license": "CC BY NC SA", "created": "2012-09-20T23:22:56-07:00", "publishTime": "2013-09-24T14:39:02-07:00", "originalName": "http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DU4hpsistDk", "isAttachment": 1}, {"embeddedObject": {"code": "", "blacklisted": 0, "width": "580", "url": "http://www.youtube.com/embed/uHdJ1lAHejw?rel=0&hash=0b012181488a38841d16d431d95316cb", "thumbnail": "http://i1.ytimg.com/vi/uHdJ1lAHejw/hqdefault.jpg", "height": "335", "caption": null, "iframe": "
", "provider": {"id": 1, "name": "YouTube"}, "type": "youtube", "id": 86326, "description": null}, "uri": "http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uHdJ1lAHejw", "id": 3158554, "permaUri": "/video/http%3A//www.youtube.com/watch%3Fv%3DuHdJ1lAHejw", "streamable": 1, "realm": null, "isAbused": false, "name": "What are Sunspots?", "filesize": null, "revisions": [{"hash": null, "created": "2012-08-27T20:22:32-07:00", "resourceID": 3158554, "isPublic": true, "publishTime": "2013-09-19T16:19:57-07:00", "filesize": null, "id": 2620918, "revision": "1"}], "type": "video", "thumbnail": "http://i1.ytimg.com/vi/uHdJ1lAHejw/hqdefault.jpg", "revision": "1", "handle": "http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uHdJ1lAHejw", "description": "Sunspots in relation to the magnetic field are discussed in this interesting video.", "authors": "NASA, uploaded by Camilla Corono", "ownerID": 3, "isExternal": 1, "resourceRevisionID": 2620918, "license": "CC BY NC SA", "created": "2012-08-27T20:22:32-07:00", "publishTime": "2013-09-19T16:19:57-07:00", "originalName": "http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uHdJ1lAHejw", "isAttachment": 1}, {"embeddedObject": {"code": "", "blacklisted": 0, "width": "580", "url": "http://www.youtube.com/embed/mIsJO9UWSBg?rel=0&hash=d37e3c33efadd0c3811e9f604e4914f1", "thumbnail": "http://i1.ytimg.com/vi/mIsJO9UWSBg/hqdefault.jpg", "height": "335", "caption": null, "iframe": "
", "provider": {"id": 1, "name": "YouTube"}, "type": "youtube", "id": 86327, "description": null}, "uri": "http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mIsJO9UWSBg", "id": 3158558, "permaUri": "/video/http%3A//www.youtube.com/watch%3Fv%3DmIsJO9UWSBg", "streamable": 1, "realm": null, "isAbused": false, "name": "What are Solar X-ray Flares and Their Effects?", "filesize": null, "revisions": [{"hash": null, "created": "2012-08-27T20:22:33-07:00", "resourceID": 3158558, "isPublic": true, "publishTime": "2013-09-19T16:19:58-07:00", "filesize": null, "id": 2620922, "revision": "1"}], "type": "video", "thumbnail": "http://i1.ytimg.com/vi/mIsJO9UWSBg/hqdefault.jpg", "revision": "1", "handle": "http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mIsJO9UWSBg", "description": "Demonstrates the creation, types, functions, and effects of solar flares and sunspots.", "authors": "NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio, uploaded by NW7US", "ownerID": 3, "isExternal": 1, "resourceRevisionID": 2620922, "license": "CC BY NC SA", "created": "2012-08-27T20:22:33-07:00", "publishTime": "2013-09-19T16:19:58-07:00", "originalName": "http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mIsJO9UWSBg", "isAttachment": 1}, {"publishTime": "2012-09-28T23:31:15-07:00", "id": 6520234, "permaUri": "/studyguide/StudyGuide_Surface_Features_of_the_Sun.docx", "streamable": 0, "realm": null, "isAbused": false, "filesize": 556499, "revisions": [{"hash": null, "created": "2012-09-21T01:22:07-07:00", "resourceID": 6520234, "isPublic": true, "publishTime": "2012-09-28T23:31:15-07:00", "filesize": 556499, "id": 5973244, "revision": "1"}], "type": "studyguide", "revision": "1", "handle": "StudyGuide_Surface_Features_of_the_Sun.docx", "description": "This study guide summarizes the key points of Surface Features of the Sun. You can download and customize it to suit your needs and study habits.", "isExternal": 0, "authors": "Hope Hahn", "ownerID": 3, "name": "Surface Features of the Sun Study Guide", "resourceRevisionID": 5973244, "license": "CC BY NC SA", "created": "2012-09-21T01:22:07-07:00", "uri": "/flx/show/studyguide/StudyGuide_Surface_Features_of_the_Sun.docx", "originalName": "StudyGuide_Surface_Features_of_the_Sun.docx", "isAttachment": 1}], "creator": "CK-12 ", "labels": [], "file": "9492", "id": 1915478, "statistics": {"downloads": 367}, "isFavorite": false, "title": "Surface Features of the Sun", "creatorAuthID": 3, "offset": 16, "children": [], "parents": [[2043683, 1], [2252977, 1], [1973056, 2], [2040603, 2], [2043445, 2], [2046004, 2], [2047112, 2], [2060910, 2], [2060986, 2], [2063238, 2], [2101560, 2], [2102876, 2], [2103249, 2], [2103250, 2], [2103251, 2], [2103252, 2], [2103253, 2], [2036406, 2], [2033371, 2], [2029037, 2], [1974049, 2], [1975937, 2], [1975952, 2], [1977696, 2], [1980752, 2], [1981978, 2], [1987397, 2], [1994311, 2], [1994312, 2], [1994314, 2], [1995316, 2], [2001009, 2], [2010721, 2], [2019484, 2], [2103254, 2], [2103257, 2], [2103277, 2], [2155416, 2], [2155653, 2], [2156391, 2], [2161757, 2], [2168692, 2], [2176876, 2], [2182619, 2], [2183801, 2], [2201396, 2], [2202141, 2], [2254744, 2], [2257377, 2], [2258075, 2], [2280617, 2], [2150414, 2], [2149462, 2], [2149360, 2], [2103280, 2], [2103285, 2], [2104066, 2], [2104084, 2], [2110081, 2], [2118259, 2], [2120252, 2], [2120560, 2], [2127716, 2], [2131158, 2], [2134792, 2], [2140515, 2], [2142920, 2], [2147444, 2], [2289497, 2], [1915522, 2], [1917330, 2], [1918797, 2], [1922880, 2], [1923381, 2], [1926998, 2], [1928251, 2], [1931574, 2], [1935586, 2], [1938286, 2], [1949141, 2], [1957239, 2], [1969664, 2], [1971162, 2], [1973012, 2], [2333356, 3], [2243649, 3], [2243606, 3], [2243625, 3], [2243586, 3], [2243681, 3], [2243669, 3], [2245158, 3], [2245157, 3], [2245155, 3], [2273927, 4], [2243605, 4], [2243595, 4], [2273892, 4], [2273895, 4], [2273898, 4], [2273905, 4], [2273907, 4], [2273910, 4], [2273913, 4], [2273919, 4], [2273926, 4], [2273930, 4], [2273887, 4], [2273882, 4], [2273874, 4], [2273875, 4], [1994348, 4], [2273876, 4], [2273881, 4], [2273886, 4], [2273758, 4], [2273790, 4], [2273802, 4], [2273801, 4], [2273793, 4], [2273792, 4], [2273789, 4], [2273755, 4], [2273745, 4], [2273740, 4], [2273739, 4], [2273730, 4], [2273729, 4], [2273719, 4], [2243701, 5], [2243671, 5], [2243666, 5], [2245078, 5], [2233558, 5], [2233569, 5], [2233561, 5], [2243600, 5], [2243616, 5], [2243686, 5], [2243638, 5], [2243648, 5], [2233360, 6], [2233359, 6], [2233556, 6], [2233364, 6], [2233564, 6], [2233363, 6], [2233555, 6], [2243589, 7], [2243593, 7], [2243650, 7], [2243610, 7], [2243684, 7], [2243664, 7], [2243604, 7], [2243679, 8], [2243613, 8], [2243621, 8], [2243609, 8], [2243674, 8], [2244929, 8], [2244950, 8], [2153304, 8], [2243633, 8], [2244942, 8], [2244970, 8], [2244966, 8], [2243651, 8], [2244984, 8], [2243642, 8], [2252978, 9], [2244973, 10], [2247819, 21], [2247820, 21], [2343050, 44], [2343035, 44], [2343033, 44], [2343032, 44], [2343013, 44], [2343012, 44], [2342963, 44], [2342962, 44], [2342961, 44], [2342958, 44], [2342957, 44], [2343058, 44]], "isLatest": true, "revision": "17", "artifactRevisionID": 1915478, "handle": "Surface-Features-of-the-Sun", "creatorID": 3, "authors": [{"roleID": 3, "sequence": 1, "role": "author", "name": "Dana Desonie, Ph.D.", "artifactID": 8821}], "artifactID": 8821, "resourceCounts": {"web": 4, "cover video": 1, "allVideos": 5, "image": 4, "cover page": 1, "studyguide": 1, "allAttachments": 12, "video": 4, "reading": 2, "pdf": 1, "cthink": 1, "contents": 1, "interactive": 2}, "language": "English", "created": "2013-08-19T16:01:42-07:00", "summary": "Recognize surface features on the Sun, such as solar flares and sunspots.", "encodedID": "SCI.ESC.923.2.L.1", "published": "2014-01-24T10:35:46-08:00", "pdf": ["/flx/show/pdf/Surface-Features-of-the-Sun_l_v17_gpd_s1.pdf"], "artifactType": "lesson"}], "realm": null, "title": "Surface Features of the Sun", "standardGrid": {}, "creatorAuthID": 3, "exerciseCount": 0, "feedbacks": {"rating": {"count": 0, "average": 0, "1": 0, "3": 0, "2": 0, "5": 0, "4": 0}, "voting": {"dislike": 2, "like": 3}}, "gradeGrid": [], "subjectGrid": [], "internalTagGrid": [], "tagGrid": [], "messageToUsers": null, "type": {"modality": true, "extensionType": "L", "description": "The lesson artifact", "name": "lesson", "id": 3}, "searchGrid": [], "artifactRevisionID": 1915478, "handle": "Surface-Features-of-the-Sun", "vocabulary": [{"languageCode": "en", "languageName": "English"}, {"languageCode": "es", "languageName": "Spanish"}], "isModality": 1, "revisionInLibrary": null, "foundationGrid": [], "stateGrid": [], "creatorID": 3, "authors": [{"roleID": 3, "sequence": 1, "role": "author", "name": "Dana Desonie, Ph.D.", "artifactID": 8821}], "artifactID": 8821, "latestRevision": "17", "license": "CC BY NC SA", "created": "2012-02-24T09:02:47-08:00", "coverImage": "/flx/show/cover%20page/113ce2a4980962883e701585b140a6d8-201308191376949586987559-201308191376953297462333.jpg", "level": "at grade", "latestRevisionID": 1915478, "modified": "2014-01-24T10:35:46-08:00", "summary": "Recognize surface features on the Sun, such as solar flares and sunspots.", "encodedID": "SCI.ESC.923.2.L.1", "artifactType": "lesson"}]}, "isModality": 1, "modality": {"artifact_type": "lesson", "weight_teacher": 1, "student_show": true, "display_label": "Read", "weight_student": 1}, "revisionInLibrary": null, "coverImageThumbLarge": "/flx/show/THUMB_LARGE/cover%20page/61dd68faebdf844d367420cd09fc02ed-201301081357669055949735-201301081357672474345531.jpg", "modality_display_label": "Read", "hasXhtml": true, "foundationGrid": [[1218, "Surface Features of the Sun", "SCI.ESC.923.2", "Surface-Features-of-the-Sun"]], "stateGrid": [[1937, "CA"]], "extendedArtifacts": {}, "creatorID": 3, "authors": [{"roleID": 3, "sequence": 1, "role": "author", "name": "Dana Desonie, Ph.D.", "artifactID": 1131575}], "post": {"section": {"13.5": {"domain": {"term": "Planets of the Solar System", "handle": "Planets-of-the-Solar-System", "description": null, "parent": {"term": "Solar System", "handle": "Solar-System", "description": null, "parent": {"term": "Earth in Space", "handle": "Earth-in-Space", "description": null, "parent": {"term": "Earth Science", "handle": "Earth-Science", "description": null, "parent": {"term": "Science", "handle": "Science", "description": null, "parent": {"term": "root", "handle": "root", "description": null, "encodedID": "CKT", "branch": null, "previewImageUrl": "http://www.ck12.org/media/images/modality_generic_icons/concept_gicon.png", "from": "domain", "subject": "CKT", "type": "domain", "id": 1, "name": "root"}, "previewImageUrl": "http://concepts.ck12.org/preview/introduction-to-animals.jpg", "encodedID": "SCI", "branch": null, "parentID": 1, "from": "domain", "subject": "SCI", "type": "domain", "id": 9, "name": "Science"}, "previewImageUrl": "http://concepts.ck12.org/preview/earthscience.jpg", "encodedID": "SCI.ESC", "branch": "ESC", "parentID": 9, "from": "domain", "subject": "SCI", "type": "domain", "id": 12, "name": "Earth Science"}, "previewImageUrl": "http://concepts.ck12.org/preview/earth-in-space.jpg", "encodedID": "SCI.ESC.900", "branch": "ESC", "parentID": 12, "from": "domain", "subject": "SCI", "type": "domain", "id": 1206, "name": "Earth in Space"}, "previewImageUrl": "http://concepts.ck12.org/preview/solar-system.jpg", "encodedID": "SCI.ESC.930", "branch": "ESC", "parentID": 1206, "from": "domain", "subject": "SCI", "type": "domain", "id": 1220, "name": "Solar System"}, "previewImageUrl": "http://concepts.ck12.org/preview/planets-of-the-solar-system.jpg", "encodedID": "SCI.ESC.932", "branch": "ESC", "parentID": 1220, "from": "domain", "subject": "SCI", "type": "domain", "id": 1224, "name": "Planets of the Solar System"}, "creator": "CK-12 ", "contributor": null, "lastRead": null, "perma": "/lesson/Planets-of-the-Solar-System-Basic", "id": 1131577, "realm": null, "title": "Planets of the Solar System", "creatorAuthID": 3, "exerciseCount": 0, "feedbacks": {"rating": {"count": 0, "average": 0, "1": 0, "3": 0, "2": 0, "5": 0, "4": 0}, "voting": {"dislike": 0, "like": 0}}, "internalTagGrid": [], "messageToUsers": null, "type": {"modality": true, "extensionType": "L", "description": "The lesson artifact", "name": "lesson", "id": 3}, "searchGrid": [], "revision": "2", "artifactRevisionID": 1439252, "handle": "Planets-of-the-Solar-System-Basic", "isModality": 1, "revisionInLibrary": null, "hasXhtml": true, "stateGrid": [[1937, "CA"]], "extendedArtifacts": {}, "creatorID": 3, "authors": [{"roleID": 3, "sequence": 1, "role": "author", "name": "Dana Desonie, Ph.D.", "artifactID": 1131577}], "artifactID": 1131577, "latestRevision": "18", "license": "CC BY NC SA", "created": "2013-01-04T16:31:25-08:00", "coverImage": "/flx/show/cover%20page/51229c899b0a616e23808d1bd05ade48-201301081357669055980939-201301081357672484621278.png", "level": "basic", "latestRevisionID": 2175901, "modified": "2014-02-26T05:54:03-08:00", "summary": "Examines the eight planets of our solar system, their orbits, and rotation.", "encodedID": "SCI.ESC.932.L.2", "artifactType": "lesson"}}, "parent": null}, "level": "basic", "vocabulary_info": null, "artifactID": 1131575, "latestRevision": "18", "contributed_by": "", "license": "CC BY NC SA", "tagGrid": [[10075, "sunspot"], [10098, "solar flare"], [10099, "solar prominences"], [25746, "SCI.ESC.923.2.L.2"]], "coverImage": "/flx/show/cover%20page/61dd68faebdf844d367420cd09fc02ed-201301081357669055949735-201301081357672474345531.jpg", "created": "2013-01-04T16:31:19-08:00", "latestRevisionID": 2175899, "modified": "2014-02-26T05:54:03-08:00", "summary": "Recognize surface features on the sun, such as solar flares and sunspots.", "encodedID": "SCI.ESC.923.2.L.2", "standardGrid": {}, "artifactType": "lesson", "url_mobi": null}; window.context_json_encoded = {"domain": {"term": "Science", "handle": "Science", "description": null, "parent": {"term": "root", "handle": "root", "description": null, "encodedID": "CKT", "branch": null, "previewImageUrl": "http://www.ck12.org/media/images/modality_generic_icons/concept_gicon.png", "from": "domain", "subject": "CKT", "type": "domain", "id": 1, "name": "root"}, "previewImageUrl": "http://concepts.ck12.org/preview/introduction-to-animals.jpg", "encodedID": "SCI", "branch": null, "parentID": 1, "from": "domain", "subject": "SCI", "type": "domain", "id": 9, "name": "Science"}, "creator": "CK-12 ", "labels": [], "contributor": null, "handle": "CK-12-Earth-Science-Concepts-For-Middle-School", "perma": "book/CK-12-Earth-Science-Concepts-For-Middle-School/", "url_pdf": ["/flx/show/pdf/CK-12-Middle-School-Earth-Science-Concepts_b_v2_kjm_s2.pdf", "/flx/show/pdf/CK-12-Middle-School-Earth-Science-Concepts_b_v2_xot_s2.pdf"], "url_epub": "/flx/show/epub/CK-12-Middle-School-Earth-Science-Concepts_b_v2_k8h.epub", "feedbacks": {"rating": {"count": 0, "average": 0, "1": 0, "3": 0, "2": 0, "5": 0, "4": 0}, "voting": {"dislike": 7, "like": 26}}, "conceptNode": "CK.SCI.ENG.SE", "realm": null, "resourceCounts": {"allVideos": 0, "image": 1, "cover page": 1, "allAttachments": 0, "contents": 1, "pdf": 2, "epub": 1}, "title": "CK-12 Earth Science Concepts For Middle School", "coverImageThumbSmall": "/flx/show/THUMB_SMALL/cover%20page/custom-CK-12_Middle_School_Earth_Science_Concepts-201301081357672855308086.jpg", "standardGrid": {}, "creatorAuthID": 3, "exerciseCount": 0, "id": 1131638, "gradeGrid": [[2080, "6"], [1935, "7"], [1936, "8"]], "handle-encoded": true, "subjectGrid": [[3568, "science"], [3595, "Earth Science"]], "internalTagGrid": [], "messageToUsers": null, "isLatest": false, "xhtml": "\n\n \n \n \n \n

\n Front Matter\n

\n

\n Foreword\n

\n

\n The study of Earth Science is the study of Planet Earth. Middle School Earth Science Concepts presents Earth Science as a set of concepts, with each concept centered around a specific category, such as the Earth's crust or plate tectonics. Each concept is comprised of a series of lessons, with each lesson focusing on one specific topic.\n

\n

\n Preface\n

\n

\n Dedication\n

\n

\n Chapters\n

\n

\n \"\"\n

\n
\n \n
\n

\n Back Matter\n

\n \n\n", "type": {"modality": false, "extensionType": "FB", "description": "The book artifact (student or default edition)", "name": "book", "id": 1}, "searchGrid": [], "revision": "2", "artifactRevisionID": 1439356, "lastRead": null, "isModality": 0, "revisionInLibrary": null, "coverImageThumbLarge": "/flx/show/THUMB_LARGE/cover%20page/custom-CK-12_Middle_School_Earth_Science_Concepts-201301081357672855308086.jpg", "hasXhtml": true, "foundationGrid": [[9, "Science", "SCI", "Science"], [12, "Earth Science", "SCI.ESC", "Earth-Science"]], "stateGrid": [[1937, "CA"]], "extendedArtifacts": {}, "creatorID": 3, "authors": [{"roleID": 3, "sequence": 1, "role": "author", "name": "Dana Desonie, Ph.D.", "artifactID": 1131638}], "level": null, "artifactID": 1131638, "latestRevision": "21", "contributed_by": "", "license": "CC BY NC SA", "tagGrid": [[7500, "Earth Science"], [10229, "concepts"], [14638, "middle school"], [25818, "CK.SCI.ENG.SE.1.CK-12-Middle-School-Concept-Earth-Science"]], "coverImage": "/flx/show/cover%20page/custom-CK-12_Middle_School_Earth_Science_Concepts-201301081357672855308086.jpg", "created": "2013-01-04T16:35:15-08:00", "latestRevisionID": 2302068, "modified": "2014-03-12T11:24:32-07:00", "summary": "Earth Science concepts for middle school.", "encodedID": "CK.SCI.ENG.SE.1.CK-12-Middle-School-Concept-Earth-Science", "artifactType": "book", "url_mobi": null};

Original text