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2.6: Seasons

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Do you like the seasons?

Do you live in a place with well-defined seasons? Do you appreciate the change of the seasons? In other words, are you happy that Earth's axis is tilted?

Earth’s Seasons

Some people think that Earth is closer to the Sun in the summer and farther away from the Sun in the the winter. But that's not true! Why can't that be true? Because when it's summer in one hemisphere, it's winter in the other. So what does cause the seasons? The seasons are caused by the 23.5 o tilt of Earth’s axis. One hemisphere points more directly toward the Sun than the other hemisphere. As Earth orbits the Sun, the tilt of Earth's axis stays lined up with the North Star.

Solstice refers to the position of the Sun when it is closest to one of the poles. At equinox the Sun is directly over the equator.

Northern Hemisphere Summer

In Northern Hemisphere summer, the North Pole is tilted towards the Sun. The Sun's rays strike the Northern Hemisphere more directly ( Figure below ). The region gets a lot of sunlight. Summer solstice is June 21 or 22. At that time the Sun's rays hit directly at the Tropic of Cancer (23.5 o N). This is the farthest north that the sun will be directly overhead. Summer solstice in the Northern Hemisphere is winter solstice in the Southern Hemisphere.

Summer solstice in the Northern Hemisphere.

Northern Hemisphere Winter

Winter solstice for the Northern Hemisphere happens on December 21 or 22. The North Pole of Earth's axis points away from the Sun ( Figure below ). Light from the Sun is spread out over a larger area. With fewer daylight hours in winter, there is also less time for the Sun to warm the area. When it is winter in the Northern Hemisphere, it is summer in the Southern Hemisphere.

In Southern Hemisphere summer, the Sun’s rays directly strike the Tropic of Capricorn (23.5 o S). Sunlight is spread across a large area near the South Pole. No sunlight reaches the North Pole.

An animation of the seasons from the University of Illinois is seen here: http://projects.astro.illinois.edu/data/Seasons/seasons.html . Notice the area of solar radiation, or insolation, in the lower right of the screen.


Equinox comes halfway between the two solstices. At equinoxes the Sun's rays shine most directly at the equator ( Figure below ). The daylight and nighttime hours are exactly equal on an equinox. The autumnal, or fall, equinox happens on September 22 or 23. The vernal, or spring, equinox happens March 21 or 22 in the Northern Hemisphere.

Where sunlight reaches on spring equinox, summer solstice, vernal equinox, and winter solstice. The time is 9:00 p.m. Universal Time, at Greenwich, England.


  • equinox : When the Sun is directly above the equator.
  • solstice : When the Sun is closest to one of the poles.
  • summer solstice : The sun is directly above the Tropic of Cancer. This is the longest day of the year in the Northern Hemisphere and the shortest in the Southern Hemisphere.
  • winter solstice : The sun is directly above the Tropic of Capricorn. This is the longest day of the year in the Southern Hemisphere and the shortest in the Northern Hemisphere.


  • Earth has seasons because of the (23.5 o ) tilt of its axis of rotation.
  • In the Northern Hemisphere, at summer solstice the Sun is closest to the North Pole (around June 22). At winter solstice, the Sun is closest to the South Pole (around December 22). In the Southern Hemisphere, the names are changed.
  • At equinox the Sun is directly over the equator. Autumnal equinox is around September 22. Spring equinox is around March 22.


Use these resources to answer the questions that follow.

  1. What causes Earth's seasons?
  2. What is the longest day of the year in the Northern Hemisphere?
  3. What occurs at the equinoxes?
  4. What happens during the winter solstice?
  5. When is summer in the Southern Hemisphere?


  1. Imagine that it is summer solstice in the Northern Hemisphere. What is the date and where is the Sun? What is happening in the Southern Hemisphere?
  2. Describe why Earth has seasons.
  3. What are equinoxes? When do they come?

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Date Created:

Jan 04, 2013

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Aug 24, 2014
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