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4.7: Earth's Tectonic Plates

Difficulty Level: Basic Created by: CK-12
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What do you get when you combine continental drift and seafloor spreading?

Plate tectonics! In the next two lessons, we will analyze those words. What is a plate? What is tectonics? Then we put it together. Alfred Wegener, who died on the Greenland ice sheet at the age of 50, didn't live to.

What is a Plate?

What portion of Earth makes up the “plates” in plate tectonics? Again, the answer came about in part due to war. In this case, the Cold War. The scientists set up seismometer networks during the 1950s and early 1960s. The purpose was to see if other nations were testing atomic bombs. Since seismometers measure ground shaking, they also recorded earthquakes.

Using Earthquakes

The seismographs located earthquake epicenters. The epicenter is the point on Earth’s surface directly above the place where an earthquake occurs.

When earthquake epicenters are put on a map, they outline the plates . This is because the earth quakes where the plates come into contact with each other. Earthquakes are found primarily in lines around the edges of some continents. They are also found through the centers of some oceans. Some occur in patches in some land areas.

Lithospheric Plates

If you look at the map pictured below, you will see that the lithosphere is divided into plates ( Figure below ). There are a dozen major and several minor plates. Each plate is named for the continent or ocean basin it contains. Some plates are made of all oceanic lithosphere. A few are all continental lithosphere. But most plates are made of a combination of both. Notice the locations where the most earthquake epicenters are found.

A map of earthquake epicenters. The outlines of the lithospheric plates can be seen.

Vocabulary

  • epicenter : Point on the Earth's surface directly above the focus of the earthquake.
  • plate : Slab of Earth's lithosphere that can move around on the planet's surface.
  • seismometer : Equipment that measures seismic waves and other ground motions.

Summary

  • A plate is a large chunk of lithosphere. There are a dozen major plates and several minor plates.
  • A plate can carry continental crust, oceanic crust, or some of each.
  • Plates can be identified by the locations of earthquake epicenters.

Practice

Use the resource below to answer the questions that follow.

  1. Which two plates meet in California?
  2. What occurs where two plates meet?
  3. What is an ocean ridge?
  4. What is a strike-slip fault?
  5. What occurs at strike-slip faults?
  6. What evidence can be seen in California of the movement of the plates?

Review

  1. How did scientists draw boundaries around the plates?
  2. What is a plate?
  3. What is plate made of?

Vocabulary

epicenter

epicenter

Point on the Earth's surface directly above the focus of the earthquake.
plate

plate

Slab of Earth's lithosphere that can move around on the planet's surface.
seismometer

seismometer

Equipment that measures seismic waves and other ground motions.

Image Attributions

Description

Difficulty Level:

Basic

Grades:

6 , 7

Date Created:

Jan 04, 2013

Last Modified:

Dec 15, 2014
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\n Front Matter\n

\n

\n Foreword\n

\n

\n The study of Earth Science is the study of Planet Earth. Middle School Earth Science Concepts presents Earth Science as a set of concepts, with each concept centered around a specific category, such as the Earth's crust or plate tectonics. Each concept is comprised of a series of lessons, with each lesson focusing on one specific topic.\n

\n

\n Preface\n

\n

\n Dedication\n

\n

\n Chapters\n

\n

\n \"\"\n

\n
\n \n
\n

\n Back Matter\n

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Original text