- Explain how minerals are mined.
- Describe how metals are made from mineral ores.
- Summarize the ways in which gemstones are used.
- Identify some useful minerals.
When you use a roll of aluminum foil or some baby powder, you probably don’t think about how the products were made. We use minerals in many everyday items.
Minerals have to be removed from the ground and made into the products. All the metals we use start out as an ore. Mining the ore is just the first step. Next, the ore must be separated from the rest of the rock that is mined. Then, the minerals need to be separated out of the ore.
A mineral deposit that contains enough minerals to be mined for profit is called an ore. Ores are rocks that contain concentrations of valuable minerals. The bauxite shown in the Figure below is a rock that contains minerals that are used to make aluminum.
Aluminum is made from the minerals in rocks known as bauxite.
Finding and Mining Minerals
Ores have high concentrations of valuable minerals. Certain places on Earth are more likely to have certain ores. Geologists search for the places that might have ore deposits. Some of the valuable deposits may be hidden underground. To find an ore deposit, geologists will go to a likely spot. They then test the physical and chemical properties of soil and rocks. Ore deposits contain valuable minerals. They may also contain other chemical elements that indicate an ore deposit is nearby.
After a mineral deposit is found, geologists determine how big it is. They outline the deposit and the surrounding geology on a map. The miners calculate the amount of valuable minerals they think they will get from the deposit. The minerals will only be mined if it is profitable. If it is profitable, they must then decide on the way it should be mined. The two main methods of mining are surface mining and underground mining. Placers are a type of surface deposit.
Surface mining is used to obtain mineral ores that are near the surface. Blasting breaks up the soil and rocks that contain the ore. Enormous trucks haul the broken rocks to locations where the ores can be removed. Surface mining includes open-pit mining, quarrying, and strip mining.
As the name suggests, open-pit mining creates a big pit from which the ore is mined. Figure below shows an open-pit diamond mine in Russia. The size of the pit grows as long as the miners can make a profit. Strip mines are similar to open-pit mines, but the ore is removed in large strips. A quarry is a type of open-pit mine that produces rocks and minerals that are used to make buildings and roads.
This diamond mine is more than 500 m deep.
Placer minerals collect in stream gravels. They can be found in modern rivers or ancient riverbeds. California was nicknamed the Golden State. This can be traced back to the discovery of placer gold in 1848. The amount of placer gold brought in miners from around the world. The gold formed in rocks in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. The rocks also contained other valuable minerals. The gold weathered out of the hard rock. It washed downstream and then settled in gravel deposits along the river. Currently, California has active gold and silver mines. California also has mines for non-metal minerals. For example, sand and gravel are mined for construction.
If an ore is deep below Earth’s surface it may be too expensive to remove all the rock above it. These deposits are taken by underground mining. Underground mines can be very deep. The deepest gold mine in South Africa is more than 3,700 m deep (that is more than 2 miles)! There are various methods of underground mining. Underground mining is more expensive than surface mining. Tunnels must be blasted into the rock so that miners and equipment can get to the ore. Underground mining is dangerous work. Fresh air and lights must be brought in to the tunnels for the miners. The miners breathe in lots of particles and dust while they are underground. The ore is drilled, blasted, or cut away from the surrounding rock and taken out of the tunnels. Sometimes there are explosions as ore is being drilled or blasted. This can lead to a mine collapse. Miners may be hurt or killed in a mining accident.
Making Metals from Minerals
Most minerals are a combination of metal and other elements. The rocks that are taken from a mine are full of valuable minerals plus rock that isn't valuable. This is called waste rock. The valuable minerals must be separated from the waste rock. One way to do this is with a chemical reaction. Chemicals are added to the ores at very high temperatures.
For example, getting aluminum from waste rock uses a lot of energy. This is because temperatures greater than 900oC are needed to separate out the aluminum. It also takes a huge amount of electricity. If you recycle just 40 aluminum cans, you will save the energy in one gallon of gasoline. We use over 80 billion cans each year. If all of these cans were recycled, we would save the energy in 2 billion gallons of gasoline!
Uses of Ore Minerals
We rely on metals, such as aluminum, copper, iron, and gold. Look around the room. How many objects have metal parts? Metals are used in the tiny parts inside your computer, in the wires of anything that uses electricity, and to make the structure of a large building, such as the one shown in the Figure below.
The dome of the capital building in Hartford, Connecticut is coated with gold leaf.
Gemstones and Their Uses
Some minerals are valuable simply because they are beautiful. Jade has been used for thousands of years in China. Native Americans have been decorating items with turquoise since ancient times. Minerals like jade, turquoise, diamonds, and emeralds are gemstones. A gemstone is a material that is cut and polished to use in jewelry. Many gemstones, such as those shown in Figure below, are minerals.
Gemstones come in many colors.
Gemstones are beautiful, rare, and do not break or scratch easily. Generally, rarer gems are more valuable. If a gem is popular, unusually large or very well cut, it will be more valuable.
Most gemstones are not used exactly as they are found in nature. Usually, gems are cut and polished. Figure below shows an uncut piece of ruby and a ruby that has been cut and polished. The way a mineral splits along a surface allows it to be cut to produce smooth surfaces. Notice that the cut and polished ruby sparkles more. Gems sparkle because light bounces back when it hits them. These gems are cut so that the most amount of light possible bounces back. Other gemstones, such as turquoise, are opaque, which means light does not pass through them. These gems are not cut in the same way.
Ruby is cut and polished to make the gemstone sparkle. Left: Ruby Crystal. Right: Cut Ruby.
Gemstones also have other uses. Most diamonds are actually not used as gemstones. Diamonds are used to cut and polish other materials, such as glass and metals, because they are so hard. The mineral corundum, which makes the gems ruby and sapphire, is used in products like sandpaper. Synthetic rubies and sapphires are also used in lasers.
Other Useful Minerals
Metals and gemstones are often shiny, so they catch your eye. Many minerals that we use everyday are not so noticeable. For example, the buildings on your block could not have been built without minerals. The walls in your home might use the mineral gypsum for the sheetrock. The glass in your windows is made from sand, which is mostly the mineral quartz. Talc was once commonly used to make baby powder. The mineral halite is mined for rock salt. Diamond is commonly used in drill bits and saw blades to improve their cutting ability. Copper is used in electrical wiring, and the ore bauxite is the source for the aluminum in your soda can.
Mining and the Environment
Mining provides people with many resources they need, but mining can be hazardous to people and the environment. Miners should restore the mined region to its natural state. It is also important to use mineral resources wisely. Most ores are non-renewable resources.
After the mining is finished, the land is greatly disturbed. The area around the mine needs to be restored to its natural state. This process of restoring the area is called “reclamation.“ Native plants are planted. Pit mines may be refilled or reshaped so that they can become natural areas again. The mining company may be allowed to fill the pit with water to create a lake. The pits may be turned into landfills. Underground mines may be sealed off or left open as homes for bats.
Mining can cause pollution. Chemicals released from mining can contaminate nearby water sources. Figure below shows water that is contaminated from a nearby mine. The United States government has mining standards to protect water quality.
Scientists test water that has been contaminated by a mine.
- Geologists look for mineral deposits that will be profitable to mine.
- Ores that are close to the surface are mined by surface mining methods. Ores that are deep in Earth are mined using underground methods.
- Metals ores must be melted to make metals.
- Many gems are cut and polished to increase their beauty.
- Minerals are used in a variety of ways.
Lesson Review Questions
1. What are placers? How do placer deposits form?
2. What makes an ore deposit valuable?
3. Why would a mining company choose to do a surface mine? Why would it choose to do an underground mine?
4. Once the ore rocks are taken to a refinery, what happens to get the ore out?
5. What are some disadvantages of underground mining?
6. What is the bottom line when it comes to deciding how what and how to mine?
7. How is land reclaimed after mining? Is it ever fully recovered?
8. How might the history of the Golden State been different if placers had not been found in its rivers?
Points to Consider
- Are all mineral deposits ores?
- An open-pit diamond mine may one day be turned into an underground mine. Why would this happen?
- Diamonds are not necessarily the rarest gem. Why do people value diamonds more than most other gems?